The binding of IFN[alpha]/[beta] to IFNAR1/IFNAR2 can induce the transcription of IRF7 through ISGF3 and that of IRF1 by the signaling traduced by STAT homodimers or heterodimers and STAT/CRKL (v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)-like) .
Grandvaux, "STAT2 and IRF9: beyond ISGF3," JAK-STAT, vol.
As mentioned above, the RIP2-TRAF3-TBK1-IKK[epsilon]-IRF7 axis leading to signaling via the type I IFN receptor and activation of ISGF3 plays a major role in NOD1 induction of type I IFN responses in gastric epithelial cells.
pylori infection NOD1 is essential in the induction of protective type I IFN responses and activation of the ISGF3 signaling pathway.
(b) IFN[alpha] binding to its receptor subunit initiates a set of events that leads to activation of STAT1[alpha] and STAT2 and formation of a complex of STATs and p48 (ISGF3) that is translocated to the specific promoter site.
This complex binds to p48 to generate interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3).
The antiviral profile of IFNL resembles the one of IFN-alpha, as both interferons signal via ISGF3
. This holds true in primary human hepatocytes  as well as in hepatoma cell lines .
In this model of type I IFN-induced STAT activation, STAT2 forms a complex with IRF9, which is unique from ISGF3
(STAT1, STAT2, IRF9) .
In this region, IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs) and the IFN[gamma]-activation sequence (GAS) have been identified as binding sties for members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family, IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3
composed of Stat1, Stat2, and IRF-9), and Stat1 [25-28, 30], which mediate responsiveness to IFNs.