The importance of eIF4E2 (aka 4EHP in metazoan and nCBP in plants) in viral infection has been shown only indirectly in that modification of eIF4E2 by covalent addition of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG15
) (ISGylation) results in binding to the 5'-cap with greater affinity than the unmodified protein (Okumura et al.
 A dose-dependent induction of peripheral interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15
) gene expression has been observed, but without a clinically significant change in HBsAg concentrations.
Chung et al., "IFN-A4 potently blocks IFN-a signalling by ISG15
and USP18 in hepatitis C virus infection," Scientific Reports, vol.
In resting macrophages, knockdown of lincRNA-Cox2 leads to increased expression of more than 700 genes, including a number of chemokines (CCL5, CX3CL1), chemokine receptors (CCRl), and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) (IRF7, OAS1a, OaS1l, OAS2, IFI204, and ISG15
Selvaggi et al., "ISG15
expression correlates with HIV-1 viral load and with factors regulating T cell response," Immunobiology, vol.
Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases MSMD has especially been associated with defects in the IL12B, IL12RB1, IRF8, ISG15
, NEMO, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IRF8, and CYBB genes (15-22).
Cloning and sequence analysis of wild argali ISG15
The baseline expression levels of 25 IFN-regulated genes (MxA, GPR3, IL17RC, ISG15
, TRAIL, OASL, IFIT1, IFIT2, RSAD2, OAS3, IFI44L, TRIM22, IL10, CXCL10, STAT1, OAS1, OAS2, IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFN[beta], ISG20, IFI6, PKR, IRF7, and USP18) were examined but were not confirmed to have predictive value .
During interferon, genotoxic stress, and pathogen infection, the ubiquitin-like molecule ISG15
is covalently added to eIF4E2 to increase its capbinding affinity .
The first cluster contained interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15
), which is a biomarker for predicting sensitivity to irinotecan, an anticancer drug and topoisomerase I inhibitor (Figure 2(a)).
Genetic disorders associated with inborn errors in IFN-[gamma]-dependent immunity include those which impair production of IFN-[gamma] (IL12B, IL12RB1, IRF8, ISG15
, NEMO) and those which impair response to IFN-[gamma] (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IRF8, CYBB) .
vOTU has broad deubiquinating activity and is able to cleave the ubiquitin-like interferon-stimulated gene protein (ISG15
) involved in host immune regulation, particularly the NF-[kappa]B (nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells) signaling pathway (24-26).