Regulation of insulin sensitivity by serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1 and IRS2
. Diabetologia 55(10):2565-2582, PMID: 22869320, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125012-2644-8.
There are two main IRS proteins present in our human bodies, and they are IRS1 and IRS2
In addition, IRS1 and IRS2
promote Wnt/[beta]-catenin signaling that is critical for cell growth: it has been demonstrated that the dysregulation of this signaling pathway leads to cancer, obesity, and diabetes .
Fernandez et al., "Caffeine-mediated BDNF release regulates long-term synaptic plasticity through activation of IRS2
signaling," Addiction Biology, vol.
Carbohydrate regulators affected were insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2
), glucose-responsive fork head box O1 (Foxo1), and glucose trans- porter 2 (Slc2a2).
White, "Regulation of insulin sensitivity by serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1 and IRS2
," Diabetologia, vol.
Furthermore, investigation showed that amplifications and mutations in the tyrosine kinase receptor adaptor gene (IRS2
) may contribute to the increased sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy, representing a potential biomarker to predict full response to anti-EGFR-related CRC therapy.
The deletion of both IRS1 and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2
) (H-DKO mice: heart-specific IRS1 and IRS2
double gene knock-out) in the brain and liver causes hyperglycemia, but such deficiencies in the pancreas and heart cause organ failure .
Other miR-30 mediated targets directly related to cell proliferation are Eya2, HP1y (CBX3), EZH2, IGF1R, RPA1, Notch, and IRS2
. The Eya proteins (Eya1-4) are the eyes absent gene product in Drosophila.
Se ha observado que la adipoR1 mejora la sensibilidad a la insulina mediante AMPK al promover activacion del sustrato del receptor de la insulina 2 (Irs2
) y PPAR[alfa] por ayudar con la oxidacion de acidos grasos (88).
 found that cinnamon extract supplementation resulted in reduced expression of interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]) mRNA while increasing expression of IR, IRS1, and IRS2
in hamster enterocytes.
Specific primer pairs (cross-intron) were designed based on the mRNA sequences of Rattus norvegicus (provided by NCBI) for insulin, glucagon (Gcg), glucokinase (Gck), glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2), insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1), and insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2
) and synthesized by TaKaRa (Table 2).