Among the 9 IRFs, IRF-3 and IRF-7 are the master regulators of IFN-I.
When mice deficient in either IRF-3 or IRF-7 were infected with PbA sporozoite, significant impairment in IFN-I response was observed.
Unlike IRF-3 and IRF-7, expression of IRF-8 is induced by IFN-[gamma] instead of IFN-I.
Apart from IRF1, IRF-3, IRF-7, and IRF-8, some studies have also briefly explored the role of IRF-5 and IRF-9 in malaria infection.
Interestingly, Spi-B activates the production of type I IFN in concert with interferon regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), a factor important for pDC function .
Interestingly, E2-2 can activate pDC-specific regulators, such as Spi-B, IRF-7, and IRF-8, as well as Bcl11a.
IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-4, IRF-7, and IRF-8 have been implicated in DC development across many subsets.
Interestingly, ChIP analysis has shown that human E2-2, which is required for pDC development, is capable of binding to promoter regions upstream Irf-7 and Irf-8 gene loci .
In mammals the IRF gene family consists of nine members: IRF-1, IRF2, IRF-3, IRF-4, IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, IRF-8/ICSBP, and IRF-9.
This 427-amino acid protein shares a number of characteristics with IRF-7 .
IRF-7. IRF-7, together with IRF-3, is a 503-amino acid central and nonredundant mediator of viral nucleic acid-induced induction of IFN-[alpha] [19, 86, 87].
Hata et al., "Distinct and essential roles of transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 in response to viruses for IFN-[alpha]/[beta] gene induction," Immunity, vol.