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Related to IL-4: IL-5, IL-2, IL-13


A gene on chromosome 5q31.1 that encodes interleukin-4, a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T cells, which participates in several B-cell activation processes. IL-4 is a ligand for IL4 receptor (as is IL13), and it induces the expression of class II MHC molecules on resting B-cells. It activates several B-cell and other cell processes; is a co-stimulator of DNA-synthesis; enhances secretion and cell surface expression of IgE and IgG1; and regulates expression of the low-affinity Fc receptor for IgE (CD23) on lymphocytes and monocytes.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.




A type of cytokine that enables communication among leukocytes and other cells active in inflammation or the specific immune response. The result is a maximized response to a microorganism or other foreign antigen. See: cell-mediated immunity; cytokine; inflammation


Abbreviation: IL-1
A cytokine released by almost all nucleated cells that activates the growth and function of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; promotes the release of additional mediators that influence immune responses; enhances production of cerebrospinal fluid; and modulates certain adrenal, hepatic, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cell activity. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factors, whose actions are almost identical to those of IL-1, are involved in fever production and other systemic effects of inflammation. See: tumor necrosis factor


Abbreviation: IL-1-ß
A protein released by activated macrophages that stimulates B cells and thymocytes to proliferate and mature and increases the secretion of interleukin 2. It is found in high levels in the blood of patients with septic shock and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
Synonym: catabolin


Abbreviation: IL-2
A cytokine released primarily by activated CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. It is a major mediator of T cell proliferation, promotes production of other cytokines, enhances natural killer cell function, and is a cofactor for immunoglobulin secretion. Synonym: T-cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-3
A cytokine produced by activated T cells that promotes proliferation of bone marrow stem cells.
Synonym: mast cell growth factor; multi-colony stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-4
A cytokine released by activated T cells and mast cells that stimulates B and T lymphocyte production and activity, prevents macrophages from releasing monokines, and promotes mast cell, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil activity.
Synonym: B cell growth factor; mast cell growth factor II; T-cell growth factor II


Abbreviation: IL-5
A cytokine produced by T cells, eosinophils and mast cells that acts as the primary stimulant for eosinophil production. Synonym: eosinophil colony-stimulating factor; eosinophil differentiation factor See: basophil(e); eosinophil


Abbreviation: IL-6
A lymphokine produced by many cell types, including mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and endothelial cells. It mediates the acute phase response, enhances B cell production and differentiation to immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells, and stimulates megakaryocyte production. Synonym: B cell stimulatory factor II; hepatocyte stimulatory factor See: acute phase reaction; lymphokine


Abbreviation: IL-7
A cytokine produced by the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow stromal cells. It stimulates growth of B-cell precursors, development of thymocytes, and activity of cytotoxic T-cells.
Synonym: lymphopoietin 1; pre-B cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-8
A cytokine produced by many cell types. It acts as a neutrophil chemoattractant.


Abbreviation: IL-9
A cytokine produced by T cells. Among other functions, it promotes the proliferation and multiplication of mast cells.


Abbreviation: IL-10
A cytokine derived from mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and keratinocytes. It inhibits cytokine synthesis by macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells, and enhances B cell growth and secretion of immunoglobulin.


Abbreviation: IL-11
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells. It mediates acute phase protein synthesis, enhances B cell growth and differentiation to plasma cells, and promotes megakaryocyte production.
Synonym: plasmocytoma stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-12
A cytokine produced by mononuclear phagocytes and B cells. It induces interferon gamma production from T cells and natural killer cells, and enhances T cell and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Synonym: natural killer cell stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-13
A cytokine produced by T cells. It induces major histocompatibility class II expression on mononuclear phagocytes and B cells, B cell proliferation, and immunoglobulin production.


Abbreviation: IL-14
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells. It stimulates proliferation of activated B lymphocytes and inhibits immunoglobulin secretion from activated B lymphocytes.


Abbreviation: IL-15
A cytokine released by epithelial cells in the kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lungs, heart, and bone marrow, which stimulates production of T cells, esp. cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. It can bind with interleukin-2 receptors and mimic IL-2's effects. See: interleukin-2


Abbreviation: IL-16
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes that stimulates movement of monocytes, CD4+ T cells, and eosinophils to the area. It was previously known as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor.


Abbreviation: IL-17
A cytokine produced by memory T lymphocytes that stimulates the proliferation of T cells and the differentiation of neutrophils.


Abbreviation: IL-18
A cytokine produced by macrophages that stimulates the production of gamma interferon and other chemical mediators that enhance cell-mediated immune responses. It is similar in structure to IL-1.


Abbreviation: IL-4
A cytokine released by activated T cells and mast cells that stimulates B and T lymphocyte production and activity, prevents macrophages from releasing monokines, and promotes mast cell, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil activity.
Synonym: B cell growth factor; mast cell growth factor II; T-cell growth factor II
See also: interleukin
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
o IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, MCP-1, TNF-?, MIP-1?, GMCSF, RANTES
IL-25 can enhance the Th2-type immune responses, stimulate ILC2s, promote the accumulation of inducible costimulator (ICOS) and T1/ST2 on nuocytes, or induce naive T cells differentiated into Th2 cells to produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, or other cytokines.
reverse transription-PCR (rt-PCR): The expression of IL-22, IL-22-BP, IL-22-R1 and IL-22-R2 was assessed by rt-PCR (Thermocycler MasterCycler Gradient Eppendorf, Hamburg) in PBMCs from healthy controls and individuals with atopic asthma after co-incubation with PMA, IL-4, IL-9, GM-CSF and IL-22 in a time dependent manner.
The membrane were probed using antibodies against SOCS1 (1:1000), caspase-9 (1:1000), Bax (1:1000), Bcl-2 (1:1000), and IL-4 (1: 500), followed by a horseradish peroxidase--(HRP-) conjugated secondary antibody (Abcam, Cambridge, UK).
Cells were washed with PBS, basal medium was added, and then cells were incubated at 30[degrees]C in 5% C[O.sub.2] and in the presence or absence of 10 ng/mL IL-4 for 6 h.
Expression of IL-4 Can Decrease the Proinflammatory Cytokines:
And, since the IL-13 receptor forms a complex with the IL-4 receptor alpha, this might also be a target of interest.
We purchased antimurine IL-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) clone 11B11 from Hazleton (Hazleton, PA, USA); biotin conjugated anti-IL-4 mAb clone BVD6-24G2 from Pharmingen (San Diego, CA, USA); horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated avidin from ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Puri's group suggest that when infused directly into the glioblastoma, IL-4 Fusion Toxin kills the tumor cells but not healthy cells.
Administration of recombinant IL-33 exaggerates the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis, which is associated with marked elevation of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, significant reduction of IL-17 and IFN-[gamma] in the colon tissue, impairment of the epithelial barrier, and delay of wound healing of the injured colonic epithelia [79-81].
IL-4 is a key cytokine that induces Th2 differentiation by acting on the IL-4 receptors expressed on naive CD4 T cells [28].
Elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 secretion by Th2 CD4+ cells, as well as suppressed levels of IL-2, and interferon (IFN-[Gamma]) secretion by Th1 CD4+ cells may enhance production of IgE, promote mast cell proliferation and maturation, augment airway hyperresponsiveness, and increase recruitment of eosinophils.