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Related to IL-12: Il-4, Il-10, IL-23




A type of cytokine that enables communication among leukocytes and other cells active in inflammation or the specific immune response. The result is a maximized response to a microorganism or other foreign antigen. See: cell-mediated immunity; cytokine; inflammation


Abbreviation: IL-1
A cytokine released by almost all nucleated cells that activates the growth and function of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; promotes the release of additional mediators that influence immune responses; enhances production of cerebrospinal fluid; and modulates certain adrenal, hepatic, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cell activity. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factors, whose actions are almost identical to those of IL-1, are involved in fever production and other systemic effects of inflammation. See: tumor necrosis factor


Abbreviation: IL-1-ß
A protein released by activated macrophages that stimulates B cells and thymocytes to proliferate and mature and increases the secretion of interleukin 2. It is found in high levels in the blood of patients with septic shock and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
Synonym: catabolin


Abbreviation: IL-2
A cytokine released primarily by activated CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. It is a major mediator of T cell proliferation, promotes production of other cytokines, enhances natural killer cell function, and is a cofactor for immunoglobulin secretion. Synonym: T-cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-3
A cytokine produced by activated T cells that promotes proliferation of bone marrow stem cells.
Synonym: mast cell growth factor; multi-colony stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-4
A cytokine released by activated T cells and mast cells that stimulates B and T lymphocyte production and activity, prevents macrophages from releasing monokines, and promotes mast cell, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil activity.
Synonym: B cell growth factor; mast cell growth factor II; T-cell growth factor II


Abbreviation: IL-5
A cytokine produced by T cells, eosinophils and mast cells that acts as the primary stimulant for eosinophil production. Synonym: eosinophil colony-stimulating factor; eosinophil differentiation factor See: basophil(e); eosinophil


Abbreviation: IL-6
A lymphokine produced by many cell types, including mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and endothelial cells. It mediates the acute phase response, enhances B cell production and differentiation to immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells, and stimulates megakaryocyte production. Synonym: B cell stimulatory factor II; hepatocyte stimulatory factor See: acute phase reaction; lymphokine


Abbreviation: IL-7
A cytokine produced by the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow stromal cells. It stimulates growth of B-cell precursors, development of thymocytes, and activity of cytotoxic T-cells.
Synonym: lymphopoietin 1; pre-B cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-8
A cytokine produced by many cell types. It acts as a neutrophil chemoattractant.


Abbreviation: IL-9
A cytokine produced by T cells. Among other functions, it promotes the proliferation and multiplication of mast cells.


Abbreviation: IL-10
A cytokine derived from mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and keratinocytes. It inhibits cytokine synthesis by macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells, and enhances B cell growth and secretion of immunoglobulin.


Abbreviation: IL-11
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells. It mediates acute phase protein synthesis, enhances B cell growth and differentiation to plasma cells, and promotes megakaryocyte production.
Synonym: plasmocytoma stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-12
A cytokine produced by mononuclear phagocytes and B cells. It induces interferon gamma production from T cells and natural killer cells, and enhances T cell and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Synonym: natural killer cell stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-13
A cytokine produced by T cells. It induces major histocompatibility class II expression on mononuclear phagocytes and B cells, B cell proliferation, and immunoglobulin production.


Abbreviation: IL-14
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells. It stimulates proliferation of activated B lymphocytes and inhibits immunoglobulin secretion from activated B lymphocytes.


Abbreviation: IL-15
A cytokine released by epithelial cells in the kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lungs, heart, and bone marrow, which stimulates production of T cells, esp. cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. It can bind with interleukin-2 receptors and mimic IL-2's effects. See: interleukin-2


Abbreviation: IL-16
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes that stimulates movement of monocytes, CD4+ T cells, and eosinophils to the area. It was previously known as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor.


Abbreviation: IL-17
A cytokine produced by memory T lymphocytes that stimulates the proliferation of T cells and the differentiation of neutrophils.


Abbreviation: IL-18
A cytokine produced by macrophages that stimulates the production of gamma interferon and other chemical mediators that enhance cell-mediated immune responses. It is similar in structure to IL-1.


Abbreviation: IL-12
A cytokine produced by mononuclear phagocytes and B cells. It induces interferon gamma production from T cells and natural killer cells, and enhances T cell and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Synonym: natural killer cell stimulating factor
See also: interleukin
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) family cytokines: Role in immune pathogenesis and treatment of CNS autoimmune disease.
Monocytes/macrophages play an important role in initiating the adaptive immune response and influencing the Th1/Th2 polarization by producing excessive inflammatory and immune-modulatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and IL-12. These cytokines may also impair the ability of antigen presenting cells to activate naive T cells and thus help to HCV replication and establish persistent infection [28].
The effect of CBS and TBS extracts on the expression of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-[alpha], was investigated using LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
The specific process is caused by blocking the maturation of LPS-induced IMDCs including downgrading T-bet mRNA expression, promoting pSTAT6, and reducing the overexpression of Th1 cytokines such like IL-[beta], IL-12, IFN-[gamma], and IL-6 from DCs.
Gal-1 Increases the Level of IL-10 and IL-12 in DC Culture Supernatants.
Serum level of three cytokines (IL-12, IL-4, and IFN-[gamma]) were determined by ELISA method using KOMA Cytokine ELISA Kits (Korea), which were designed for the quantitative measurement of cytokine in mice.
Considerable data point to a prominent role for IL-12 produced from activated macrophages in the development of [T.sub.H]1 CD4+ T cells in the intestinal mucosa.
Las concentraciones sericas de las citocinas investigadas (IL-12, IL-17, IFN-[gamma] y TNF-[alfa]) se determinaron mediante la tecnica de Inmunoanalisis Enzimatico (ELISA) de doble anticuerpo (Quantikine Inmmunoassays.
Concentrations of IL-6, TNF[alpha], IL-10 and IL-12 (p70) in culture supernatants of PBMCs were measured by solid phase sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) employing commercial kits (Pharmingen, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Nakayama, "Inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow cells by IL-12: involvement of IFN-[gamma] possibly induced from non-T cell population," Bone, vol.
As mentioned above, Th17 cells require IL-23 for the proliferation and survive, while Th1 cells require IL-12 for the differentiation (Figure 1).
IL-23 belongs to IL-12 cytokine family and represents an important cytokine implicated as being responsible for Th17 phenotype maintaining and survival [70,71].