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abbreviation for interleukin-11.


A gene on chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 that encodes interleukin-11, a member of the gp130 family of cytokines, which drive the assembly of multi-subunit receptor complexes, all of which contain at least one molecule of the transmembrane signalling receptor IL6ST. IL11 directly stimulates the proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocyte progenitor cells, and it induces megakaryocyte maturation resulting in increased platelet production.




A type of cytokine that enables communication among leukocytes and other cells active in inflammation or the specific immune response. The result is a maximized response to a microorganism or other foreign antigen. See: cell-mediated immunity; cytokine; inflammation


Abbreviation: IL-1
A cytokine released by almost all nucleated cells that activates the growth and function of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; promotes the release of additional mediators that influence immune responses; enhances production of cerebrospinal fluid; and modulates certain adrenal, hepatic, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cell activity. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factors, whose actions are almost identical to those of IL-1, are involved in fever production and other systemic effects of inflammation. See: tumor necrosis factor


Abbreviation: IL-1-ß
A protein released by activated macrophages that stimulates B cells and thymocytes to proliferate and mature and increases the secretion of interleukin 2. It is found in high levels in the blood of patients with septic shock and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
Synonym: catabolin


Abbreviation: IL-2
A cytokine released primarily by activated CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. It is a major mediator of T cell proliferation, promotes production of other cytokines, enhances natural killer cell function, and is a cofactor for immunoglobulin secretion. Synonym: T-cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-3
A cytokine produced by activated T cells that promotes proliferation of bone marrow stem cells.
Synonym: mast cell growth factor; multi-colony stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-4
A cytokine released by activated T cells and mast cells that stimulates B and T lymphocyte production and activity, prevents macrophages from releasing monokines, and promotes mast cell, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil activity.
Synonym: B cell growth factor; mast cell growth factor II; T-cell growth factor II


Abbreviation: IL-5
A cytokine produced by T cells, eosinophils and mast cells that acts as the primary stimulant for eosinophil production. Synonym: eosinophil colony-stimulating factor; eosinophil differentiation factor See: basophil(e); eosinophil


Abbreviation: IL-6
A lymphokine produced by many cell types, including mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and endothelial cells. It mediates the acute phase response, enhances B cell production and differentiation to immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells, and stimulates megakaryocyte production. Synonym: B cell stimulatory factor II; hepatocyte stimulatory factor See: acute phase reaction; lymphokine


Abbreviation: IL-7
A cytokine produced by the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow stromal cells. It stimulates growth of B-cell precursors, development of thymocytes, and activity of cytotoxic T-cells.
Synonym: lymphopoietin 1; pre-B cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-8
A cytokine produced by many cell types. It acts as a neutrophil chemoattractant.


Abbreviation: IL-9
A cytokine produced by T cells. Among other functions, it promotes the proliferation and multiplication of mast cells.


Abbreviation: IL-10
A cytokine derived from mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and keratinocytes. It inhibits cytokine synthesis by macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells, and enhances B cell growth and secretion of immunoglobulin.


Abbreviation: IL-11
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells. It mediates acute phase protein synthesis, enhances B cell growth and differentiation to plasma cells, and promotes megakaryocyte production.
Synonym: plasmocytoma stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-12
A cytokine produced by mononuclear phagocytes and B cells. It induces interferon gamma production from T cells and natural killer cells, and enhances T cell and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Synonym: natural killer cell stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-13
A cytokine produced by T cells. It induces major histocompatibility class II expression on mononuclear phagocytes and B cells, B cell proliferation, and immunoglobulin production.


Abbreviation: IL-14
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells. It stimulates proliferation of activated B lymphocytes and inhibits immunoglobulin secretion from activated B lymphocytes.


Abbreviation: IL-15
A cytokine released by epithelial cells in the kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lungs, heart, and bone marrow, which stimulates production of T cells, esp. cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. It can bind with interleukin-2 receptors and mimic IL-2's effects. See: interleukin-2


Abbreviation: IL-16
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes that stimulates movement of monocytes, CD4+ T cells, and eosinophils to the area. It was previously known as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor.


Abbreviation: IL-17
A cytokine produced by memory T lymphocytes that stimulates the proliferation of T cells and the differentiation of neutrophils.


Abbreviation: IL-18
A cytokine produced by macrophages that stimulates the production of gamma interferon and other chemical mediators that enhance cell-mediated immune responses. It is similar in structure to IL-1.


Abbreviation: IL-11
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells. It mediates acute phase protein synthesis, enhances B cell growth and differentiation to plasma cells, and promotes megakaryocyte production.
Synonym: plasmocytoma stimulating factor
See also: interleukin
References in periodicals archive ?
I thank Glen Kauwell for his help with the immunohistochemical studies and Dr Harvey Gaylord for assisting in the neutralization study involving IL-11.
In addition, IL-11 antigen was detected in the cytoplasm of LCH-type histiocytes in all cases, and double immunostaining revealed IL-11 and [CD.
1a] antigen-expressing LCH; a "sausage" control containing an S100 protein-expressing melanoma; placenta and decidua basalis with IL-11 antigen-positive intermediate trophoblasts and decidual cells; tonsillar tissue containing LAP antigen-expressing squamous epithelium and endothelial cells; and a "sausage" control with endothelial cells immunoreactive for ACE antigen.
The SNPs in the IL-11 promoter region are in complete and/or absolute linkage disequilibrium, so that only three haplotypes (ACC, GCG and GGG) of the possible eight are observed.
The effect of novel polymorphisms in the interleukin-11 (IL-11) gene on IL-11 transcription and plasma IL-11 levels, and an association with systemic-onset juvenile chronic arthritis.
The role of IL-11 type cytokines and their receptors in bone.
The results of the study were striking: the long-term survival rate of the mice receiving IL-11 was 90 percent.
Researchers identified three ways that IL-11 acts to blunt the effects of GVHD: by reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines, by protecting the intestines and other organs, and by altering the responsiveness of T cells from the donated marrow.
IL-11 is a protein that stimulates bone marrow cells to divide and differentiate into platelets.
Bolder BioTechnology previously received a $100,000 Phase I SBIR grant award from The National Cancer Institute, which was used to demonstrate the feasibility of producing long-acting, highly potent IL-11 analogs using the company's targeted PEGylation technology.