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Related to IL-10: IL-2


A gene on chromosome 1q31-q32 that encodes interleukin-10, a cytokine produced primarily by monocytes, but also by lymphocytes, which inhibits the synthesis of a number of cytokines (including IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF and GM-CSF) produced by activated macrophages and helper T cells. IL10 has pleiotropic effects in immunoregulation and inflammation. It downregulates expression of Th1 cytokines, MHC class-II antigens and co-stimulatory molecules on macrophages, and it enhances B cell survival, proliferation and antibody production. It can block NF-kappa B activity, and is involved in regulating the JAK-STAT signalling pathway.

Molecular pathology
IL10 mutations are associated with an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and rheumatoid arthritis.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.




A type of cytokine that enables communication among leukocytes and other cells active in inflammation or the specific immune response. The result is a maximized response to a microorganism or other foreign antigen. See: cell-mediated immunity; cytokine; inflammation


Abbreviation: IL-1
A cytokine released by almost all nucleated cells that activates the growth and function of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; promotes the release of additional mediators that influence immune responses; enhances production of cerebrospinal fluid; and modulates certain adrenal, hepatic, bone, and vascular smooth muscle cell activity. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factors, whose actions are almost identical to those of IL-1, are involved in fever production and other systemic effects of inflammation. See: tumor necrosis factor


Abbreviation: IL-1-ß
A protein released by activated macrophages that stimulates B cells and thymocytes to proliferate and mature and increases the secretion of interleukin 2. It is found in high levels in the blood of patients with septic shock and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
Synonym: catabolin


Abbreviation: IL-2
A cytokine released primarily by activated CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. It is a major mediator of T cell proliferation, promotes production of other cytokines, enhances natural killer cell function, and is a cofactor for immunoglobulin secretion. Synonym: T-cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-3
A cytokine produced by activated T cells that promotes proliferation of bone marrow stem cells.
Synonym: mast cell growth factor; multi-colony stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-4
A cytokine released by activated T cells and mast cells that stimulates B and T lymphocyte production and activity, prevents macrophages from releasing monokines, and promotes mast cell, immunoglobulin E, and eosinophil activity.
Synonym: B cell growth factor; mast cell growth factor II; T-cell growth factor II


Abbreviation: IL-5
A cytokine produced by T cells, eosinophils and mast cells that acts as the primary stimulant for eosinophil production. Synonym: eosinophil colony-stimulating factor; eosinophil differentiation factor See: basophil(e); eosinophil


Abbreviation: IL-6
A lymphokine produced by many cell types, including mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and endothelial cells. It mediates the acute phase response, enhances B cell production and differentiation to immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells, and stimulates megakaryocyte production. Synonym: B cell stimulatory factor II; hepatocyte stimulatory factor See: acute phase reaction; lymphokine


Abbreviation: IL-7
A cytokine produced by the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow stromal cells. It stimulates growth of B-cell precursors, development of thymocytes, and activity of cytotoxic T-cells.
Synonym: lymphopoietin 1; pre-B cell growth factor


Abbreviation: IL-8
A cytokine produced by many cell types. It acts as a neutrophil chemoattractant.


Abbreviation: IL-9
A cytokine produced by T cells. Among other functions, it promotes the proliferation and multiplication of mast cells.


Abbreviation: IL-10
A cytokine derived from mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and keratinocytes. It inhibits cytokine synthesis by macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells, and enhances B cell growth and secretion of immunoglobulin.


Abbreviation: IL-11
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells. It mediates acute phase protein synthesis, enhances B cell growth and differentiation to plasma cells, and promotes megakaryocyte production.
Synonym: plasmocytoma stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-12
A cytokine produced by mononuclear phagocytes and B cells. It induces interferon gamma production from T cells and natural killer cells, and enhances T cell and natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Synonym: natural killer cell stimulating factor


Abbreviation: IL-13
A cytokine produced by T cells. It induces major histocompatibility class II expression on mononuclear phagocytes and B cells, B cell proliferation, and immunoglobulin production.


Abbreviation: IL-14
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells. It stimulates proliferation of activated B lymphocytes and inhibits immunoglobulin secretion from activated B lymphocytes.


Abbreviation: IL-15
A cytokine released by epithelial cells in the kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lungs, heart, and bone marrow, which stimulates production of T cells, esp. cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. It can bind with interleukin-2 receptors and mimic IL-2's effects. See: interleukin-2


Abbreviation: IL-16
A cytokine produced by T lymphocytes that stimulates movement of monocytes, CD4+ T cells, and eosinophils to the area. It was previously known as lymphocyte chemoattractant factor.


Abbreviation: IL-17
A cytokine produced by memory T lymphocytes that stimulates the proliferation of T cells and the differentiation of neutrophils.


Abbreviation: IL-18
A cytokine produced by macrophages that stimulates the production of gamma interferon and other chemical mediators that enhance cell-mediated immune responses. It is similar in structure to IL-1.


Abbreviation: IL-10
A cytokine derived from mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, and keratinocytes. It inhibits cytokine synthesis by macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells, and enhances B cell growth and secretion of immunoglobulin.
See also: interleukin
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
o Adiponectin, Cortisol, C-Peptide, E1G, FSH, HCGb, IL-6, IL-10
IL-8 (D0) correlated with SOFA (D0) (rho = 0.27; p = 0.007), SOFA (D1) (rho = 0.36; p < 0.001), and SOFA (D3) (rho = 0.34; p = 0.001); IL-10 correlated with SOFA (D0) (rho = 0.3; p = 0.01), SOFA (D1) (rho = 0.4; p = 0.001), and SOFA D3 (rho = 0.26; p = 0.045); G-CSF (D0) correlated with SOFA (D1) (rho = 0.25; p = 0.01) and SOFA (D3) (rho = 0.24; p = 0.02); IL-17 (D0) correlated with SOFA (D0) (rho = 0.23; p = 0.01), but there was no correlation with SOFA (D1) or SOFA (D3).
Levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 in mice serum were determined by sandwich-enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) (Schumacher et al., 1988).
Liu further added, "What we found here is IL-10 promotes colon cancer."
Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-10 are the main cytokines secreted by Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils.
Oxidative stress is often enhanced in patients with TIN, which promotes the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-[alpha] (29).
In addition, it led to increased production of IFN-y and IL-17, and the decrease of IL-10 and TGF-[beta] in T CD[4.sup.+].
The expression of cytokines IL-23, IL-21, TNF-[alpha], and IL-10 did not have a significant association with the severity of chronic gastritis in this study (Figure 2, Table 2).
Plasma levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, and soluble TNF-a receptors at rest and after WBV are shown in Figure 1.
During the follow-up, all clinical malaria episodes were recorded and respective blood samples were collected for determination of IL-10 and IFN-[gamma].
In order to determine the effect of inflammatory reactions in the pathogenesis of miscarriage, genotyping of promoter sites was carried out using the following polymorphic markers: G753A for TLR2; C399T for TLR4; G2848A for TLR9; C509T for TGF-[beta]1; PROGINS for PGR; G174C for IL-6; C781Tfor IL-8; C592A for IL-10; and G308A for TNF[alpha].