For this indication, I believe, new markers like TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 are clearly helpful.
Some have shown promise in the early detection of AKI following cardiac surgery (plasma NGAL, urine IL-18), while others have demonstrated the ability to detect AKI in the setting of critical illness (urine cystatin C, TIMP-2, and IGFBP7) and others have shown the ability to predict AKI progression at the time of clinical AKI (plasma NGAL, urine microalbumin).
The discovery of the TIMP2 and IGFBP7
biomarkers was different in that it was the result of a dedicated study created to identify and validate new biomarkers of AKI.
Many genes, such as serpins, BCL-2 proteins; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11a (TNFRSF11A), unc-13 homolog D (UNC13D), sphingosine, ArfGAP with FG repeats 1 (AGFG1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4), IGFBP7
; receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (R1PK1), were identified.
, a novel immunohistochemical marker in differentiating dermatofibroma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
Moreover, the upregulated DEGs (CAV1, CD200R1, HRASLS2, MIA, TNFRSF17, CXCR3, AQP3, CCR9, IFNAR1, and CEACAM1) and downregulated DEGs (EIF1AY, DDX3Y UTY, IL7R, IGFBP7
, and GNLY) may be involved in immune function of organism.
Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2)*IGF-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7
) levels are associated with adverse long-term outcomes in patients with AKI.
(72) In another study, (73) in a series of 14 differentially expressed genes, 8 were upregulated: CFB (complement factor B), FTL (ferritin, light polypeptide), IGFBP7
(insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7), RARRES1 (retinoic acid receptor responder 1), RARRES2 (retinoic acid receptor responder 2), RBP1 (retinol-binding protein 1), SAT (spermidine/ spermine N1-acetyltransferase), and TXN (thioredoxin), while 6 were down-regulated: ALOX5AP (arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein), CLNS1A (chloride channel nucleotide-sensitive 1A), EIF4A2 (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2), ELK3 (ETS-domain protein, SRF accessory protein 2), DF2/REQ (apoptosis response zinc finger gene), and SYPL (synaptophysin-like protein).
A genome-wide RNA interference screen (22) showed that a small population of human melanocytes does not go into senescence after [BRAF.sup.V600E] transfection and 17 genes, including IGFBP7 and TP53, are necessary for blocking cellular proliferation by [BRAF.sup.V600E].
Oncogenic BRAF induces senescence and apoptosis through pathways mediated by the secreted protein IGFBP7. Cell.