As an example, a group of interferon (IFN) signature genes were identified to be significantly upregulated in the DEG profiling, including IFI27, IFI30, IFI35, IFITM3
, STAT4, etc.
Investigators have now shown that reducing levels of one antiviral factor called interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3
) makes cultured cells highly sensitive to ZIKV infection.
The IFN-stimulated gene IFITM3
, a small membrane-associated IFN-inducible transmembrane protein 3, was shown to inhibit flaviviral replication.118 Recently, IFITM3
and IFITM1 were also shown to inhibit the replication of ZIKV.
Guo, "Interferon-induced cell membrane proteins, IFITM3
and tetherin, inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus infection via distinct mechanisms," Journal of Virology, vol.
(II) In schizophrenia, transcriptome analysis of brain tissue from autopsy of schizophrenic patients showed an increased expression of IFITM2, IFITM3
, SERPINA3, and GBP1 was found.
Eight weeks after receiving their first samples of Zika virus, the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) researchers have shown that a very small protein we all have in our bodies, interferon-induced protein 3 (IFITM3
), can dramatically reduce the ability of Zika virus to infect human and mouse cells.
The predicted inhibition of the interferon-signaling pathway by KJ and APE was due to significant downregulation of six genes; IFI35, IFIT1, IFITM1, IFITM3
, IRFl, PSMB8 encoding interferon-induced protein 35, interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1, interferon induced transmembrane protein 1, interferon induced transmembrane protein 3, interferon regulatory factor 1, and proteasome subunit beta type 8, respectively.
A report published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases by Dr David Hui of the Chinese University of Hong Kong said H7N9 flu virus spreads easily and more among the Chinese because of the IFITM3
gene (interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 gene).
"When a virus tries to enter, the immune system gets stimulated by interferon, which produces almost 300 host proteins, including IFITM3
. This protein then disrupts the interaction between two other proteins, which, in turn, significantly increases the level of cholesterol in cells, and thereby blocks the virus."
In a previous study involving mostly people of European descent, scientists found that a few individuals carried a particular form of a gene known as IFITM3
and got hit especially hard by the flu.