A number of cytosolic DNA receptors are reported, including cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) , DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factor , DDX41 , and IFN-[gamma]-inducible protein (IFI16
) ; however, only cGAS has been validated to recognize DNA ligand in various systems both in vitro and in vivo .
Previously, we could show that the barely characterized transcription factor ZNF395 (also known as Papillomavirus Binding Factor  and Huntington's Disease Binding Protein HDBP2 ) modulates the IFN[alpha]-mediated induction of IFIT1, IFIT2, IFI16
, and IFI44 .
The best-known ALRs, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and IFN-[gamma] inducible protein 16 (IFI16
), function as intracellular immune sensors that detect microbial DNA.
Amongst several inflammasomes are interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16
), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ACS), NLR-family apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), NOD-like receptor-family CARD domain containing protein 4 (NLRC4), NLR family pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1), and NLRP3 [15, 16].
Bistoni et al., "Circulating interferon- inducible protein IFI16
correlates with clinical and serological features in rheumatoid arthritis," Arthritis Care & Research, vol.
His lab's Science paper reveals how, during an HIV infection, a protein known as IFI16
senses fragments of HIV DNA in abortively infected immune cells.
Este efecto en este cancer es mediado por la estimulacion de la expresion del gen IFI16
(Interferon Gamma Inducible Gen 16).
Sensor protein can be formed by either members of the Nod-like receptor family (NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRP6, NLRP7, etc.) or the PYHIN family members AIM2 and IFI16
As early as in 1994, IFI16
was recognized as a target of antinuclear antibodies in patients with SLE .
Cytosolic DNA sensor recognizes viral genomic DNA, including DNA-dependent activator of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (DAI), RNA polymerase III (polyIII), gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IFI16
), and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) .
The DNA sensor IFI16
recruits STING to activate a TBK1-IRF3-dependent pathway to IFN-[beta] induction.