The symptoms experienced by the patient in this case are also phenomenologically similar to hypnagogic hallucinations
. It is estimated that approximately 70% of the population experiences hallucinations at least once while transitioning from wakefulness to sleeping .
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, and sleep paralysis during the rapid eye movement period of sleep.
Narcolepsy is an obstinate neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns.
The patient was a six-year-old girl whose parents reported all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy--paroxysmal sleep, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, and sleep paralysis--but she was misdiagnosed as having atypical epilepsy (despite the absence of EEG evidence) and a variety of other diagnoses by several internists and neurologists at eight hospitals over a period of 10 months before the correct diagnosis was confirmed by conducting a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and an overnight polysomnography (PSG).
The temporal sequence of pathology postulated in PD [82, 83] and in DLB 84]--from the medulla upwards through the brainstem, to the substantia nigra, the limbic structures including the amygdala, and finally the neocortex--is consistent with preclinical RBD and hypnagogic hallucinations
preceding the onset of parkinsonism and cognitive impairments in some DLB patients .
Narcolepsy comes from two Greek words meaning "benumbing seizure." It is a disorder characterized by uncontrollable brief episodes of sleep (sleep attacks), hypnagogic hallucinations
, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis.
[bar] HYPNOPOMPIC or HYPNAGOGIC HALLUCINATIONS
: "This is were people suffer from a kind of hallucination just as they are drifting off to sleep or waking up.
* Hypnagogic hallucinations
. These vivid, often frightening, dreamlike experiences occur while dozing or falling asleep.
Narcolepsy is a primary sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with one or all of the following: cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations
and nocturnal sleep disturbance.
For example, REM sleep suppression may help with cataplexy and the hypnagogic hallucinations
. Thus, the clinician and patient may be led astray by the resolution of the psychotic symptoms.
(3,4) These are visual, somatic, auditory or other hallucinations, usually brief though sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic hallucinations
) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic hallucinations).
. These vivid, often frightening, dream-like experiences occur while dozing or falling asleep.