portal hypertension

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por·tal hy·per·ten·sion

hypertension in the portal system as seen in cirrhosis of the liver and other conditions causing obstruction to the portal vein.

hypertension

High blood pressure Cardiovascular disease An abnormal ↑ systemic arterial pressure, corresponding to a systolic BP of > 160 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of 95 mm Hg and graded according to intensity of ↑ diastolic BP; HTN affects ± 60 million in the US Workup Evaluation of HTN requires clinical Hx for Pt, family Hx, 2 BP determinations, funduscopy, ID of bruits in neck & abdominal aorta, evaluation of peripheral edema, peripheral pulses and residual neurologic defects in stroke victims, chest films to determine cardiac size and lab parameters to rule out causes of secondary HTN Risk factors Race–blacks more common, ♂, family history of HTN, obesity, defects of lipid metabolism, DM, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, electrolyte imbalance–eg, ↑ sodium, phosphorus, ↓ potassium, tin Treatment Diet–eg, sodium restriction, ↓ calories, alcohol and cigarettes–the weight gain accompanying smoking cessation tends to offset the minimal ↓ in BP, calcium supplements, lifestyle manipulation–eg, biofeedback, ↑ exercise; antihypertensives–eg, diuretics–benzothiadiazines, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, sympatholytic agents–central and peripheral-acting α-adrenergics, β-adrenergics, mixed α- and β-blockers, direct vasodilators, ACE inhibitors–the preferred agent to use ab initio, dihydropiridine CCBs. See ACCT, ACE inhibitor, Borderline hypertension, Borderline isolated systolic hypertension, Calcium channel blocker, Drug-induced hypertension, Essential hypertension, Exercise hypertension, Familial dyslipemic hypertension, Gestational hypertension, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Isolated systolic hypertension, Malignant hypertension, MRC, Obetension, Paradoxic hypertension, Pill hypertension, Pregnancy-induced hypertension, Pseudohypertension, Pulmonary hypertension, Refractory hypertension, Renovascular hypertension, SHEP, STOP-Hypertension, TAIM, TOHP-1, TOMHSTyramine hypertension, White coat hypertension.
Hypertension
Class I–mild Diastolic pressure 90-104 mm Hg
Class II–moderate Diastolic pressure 105-119 mm Hg
Class III–severe Diastolic pressure > than 120 mm Hg
Hypertension types
Essential hypertension Idiopathic HTN The major form comprising 90% of all HTN
Malignant hypertension A sustained BP > 200/140 mm Hg, resulting in arteriolar necrosis, most marked in the brain, eg. cerebral hemorrhage, infarcts, and hypertensive encephalopathy, eyes, eg papilledema and hypertensive retinopathy and kidneys, eg acute renal failure and hypertensive nephropathy; if malignant HTN is uncorrected or therapy refractory, Pts may suffer a hypertensive crisis in which prolonged high BP causes left ventricular hypertrophy and CHF
Paroxysmal hypertension Transient or episodic waves of ↑ BP of any etiology, punctuated by periods of normotension, typical of pheochromocytoma
Portal hypertension ↑ portal vein pressure caused by a backflow of blood through splenic arteries, resulting in splenomegaly and collateral circulation, resulting in esophageal varices and/or hemorrhoids; PH may be intra- or extrahepatic, and is often due to cirrhosis, or rarely portal vein disease, venous thrombosis, tumors or abscesses
Pulmonary hypertension A condition defined as a 'wedge' systolic/diastolic pressure > 30/20 mm Hg–Normal: 18-25/12-16 mm Hg, often secondary to blood stasis in peripheral circulation, divided into passive, hyperkinetic, vasoocclusive, vasoconstrictive and secondary forms. See Pulmonary HTN.
Renovascular hypertension see there.
Secondary hypertension
Aging
Cardiovascular Open heart surgery, coarctation of aorta, ↑ cardiac output–anemia, thyrotoxicosis, aortic valve insufficiency
Cerebral ↑ Intracranial pressure
Endocrine Mineralocorticoid excess, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, glucocorticoid excess, eg Cushing syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly
Gynecologic Pregnancy, oral contraceptives
Neoplasia Renin-secreting tumors, pheochromocytoma
• ↓ Peripheral vascular resistance AV shunts, Paget's disease of bone, beri-beri
Renal disease Vascular, parenchymal

por·tal hy·per·ten·sion

(pōr'tăl hī'pĕr-ten'shŭn)
Elevation of pressure in the hepatic portal circulation due to cirrhosis or other fibrotic change in liver tissue; when pressure exceeds 10 mmHg, a collateral circulation may develop to maintain venous return from structures drained by the portal vein; engorgement of collateral veins can lead to esophageal varices and, less often, caput medusae.

portal hypertension

Increased blood pressure in the PORTAL VEIN, that carries blood from the intestines and spleen to the liver. The commonest cause is CIRRHOSIS of the liver. The rise in pressure in the veins at the lower end of the oesophagus causes them to become stretched and irregular (varicose) and there is a real danger of severe bleeding from these oesophageal varices. This can be controlled by the use of balloons inserted into the oesophagus and then inflated. Injections of hardening solution into the varices to close them off (sclerotherapy) may be helpful. A blood shunting operation is sometimes performed.

Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension forces the blood flow backward, causing the portal veins to enlarge and the emergence of bleeding varices across the esophagus and stomach from the pressure in the portal vein. Portal hypertension is most commonly caused by cirrhosis, but can also be seen in portal vein obstruction from unknown causes.

por·tal hy·per·ten·sion

(pōr'tăl hī'pĕr-ten'shŭn)
Elevation of pressure in the hepatic portal circulation due to cirrhosis or other fibrotic change in liver tissue.
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