[alpha]-2 agonists act by altering transmembrane potential and ion conductance, thus cause hyperpolarisation
of nerves in the brainstem (Locus coeruleus).
Proper function of outer hair cells is intrinsically tied to their motile nature and ability to change length upon membrane hyperpolarisation
and depolarisation (8).
The activation of [Na.sup.+]-[K.sup.+] ATPase leads to a shift of potassium ions intracellularly, resulting in hypokalaemia and hyperpolarisation
of muscle cell membranes .
Moderate mitochondrial [Ca.sup.2+] increase may disinhibit the respiratory chain leading to [DELTA][[PSI].sub.m] hyperpolarisation
 which in turn is accompanied by increasing superoxide anion formation .
Excitatory signals will cause a change in the resting potential toward the positive (depolarisation), while inhibitory signals will cause the membrane potential to become more negative and more difficult to excite (hyperpolarisation
In the last few years, several approaches involving 'hyperpolarisation
' of nuclear spins have emerged that are poised to revolutionise NMR spectroscopy.
The analgesic action of intrathecal [alpha]2 adrenoreceptors agonist is by depressing the release of C-fiber transmitters which explain the prolongation of the sensory block and by hyperpolarisation
of postsynaptic dorsal horn neurons which explain the prolongation of the motor block.
Presynaptic stimulation of [[alpha].sub.2] receptors inhibits neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic stimulation prevents neuronal transmission through hyperpolarisation
1993) thus leading to exit of [K.sup.+] following its chemical gradient, cell membrane hyperpolarisation
, [Cl.sup.-] exit and thus cellular loss of KCl with osmotically obliged water (Lang et al.
Tumescence relies on NO action on the efflux of calcium (C[a.sup.2+]) and hyperpolarisation
of the smooth-muscle cell potassium ([K.sup.+]) to cause relaxation of the arteries with a decrease in venous drainage.
It is tempting to speculate that such a [Gd.sup.3+]-insensitive subset is formed by [K.sup.+] channels , which may confer hyperpolarisation
of the plasma membrane and thereby promote [Ca.sup.2+] influx into endothelial cells 43].