These tricks were simple compared with those of the bizarre entities Ray describes as "hyperparasites." Tierran organisms normally "compete" for space in the soup, yet "they invented innovations for competing for time," Ray says.
Despite their nasty ways toward parasites, hyperparasites can be downright sociable with one another, he adds.
bambawalei may be adversely affected by high population of the hyperparasite
Promuscidea unfasciativentris (Arif et al., 2011).
Cell structure of shellfish pathogens and hyperparasites
in the genera Minchinia, Urosporidium, Haplosporidium, and Marteilia--taxonomic implications.
must be eliminated from the cultures kept by Ertle before they are sent to St.
And let's not forget hyperparasites
: bugs that bug bugs that bug bugs - and so on.
The parasitized aphids were collected together with plant materials and transferred to laboratory, maintained subsequently, until emergence of parasitoids and hyperparasites
. Live aphids were preserved in 90 Percent ethanol and 75 Percent lactic acid in a ratio of 2:1 (Eastop and van Emden, 1972) for identification at a later date.
It uses heat and pressure to sterilize material to be scrapped, like "plant parts that come in with a shipment, packing material, hyperparasites
, dead hosts--anything that must be disposed of," says Ertle.
The species of Trichoderma harziamun Rifai act as competitive hyperparasites
producing anti fungal metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes to which are attributed structural changes at the cellular level, such as vacuolation, granulation, disintegration of cytoplasm and cellular lysis, found in organisms wich it interacts.
haemon respectively) are also hyperparasites
that will attack the other members of the parasitoid guild as well as developing A.
Diadegma armilatum was attacked by the hyperparasites
, Pteromalus sp.