* Fatty acid imbalance: "Fatty acid and fatty acid signaling via PPARs play important roles in all four of the components of acne pathogenesis: hyperkeratinization
, sebum overproduction, P.
Six features were graded on a dichotomous scale, including rounding of lid margins, notching of lid margins, vascularity of lid margins, lashes abnormity, hyperkeratinization
, and hyperemia of lid margins.
The etiology of acne vulgaris appears to be multifactorial, involving follicular hyperkeratinization
, proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, increased sebum production, and inflammation .
[6,7] Diffuse hyperkeratinization
& desquamation are characteristic of HI.
The most observed clinical signs were pruritus (100%), alopecia/hypotricosis in nine dogs (31%), erythema in also nine dogs (31%), scaling in six (20.6%), pustules in five (17.2%) and abdominal hyperkeratinization
in three patients (10.4%).
The current hypothesis is that the HS primary event is a hyperkeratinization
of the follicular infundibulum, followed by follicular occlusion, dilatation and rupture; the spread of bacterial and cellular remnants would trigger the local inflammatory response (3).
The hallmark of TCDD toxicity in humans is chloracne (Panteleyev and Bickers 2006), characterized by epidermal acanthosis and hyperkeratosis, and hyperkeratinization
and metaplasia of the sebaceous glands, with comedone formation.
 The precise mechanisms of the acne process is known to be characterized by sebum overproduction, follicular hyperkeratinization
, oxidative stress and inflammation.
In order to evaluate the possible role of PA in the hyperkeratinization
of the pilosebaceous duct, we focused on the proliferative response of HaCaT keratinocytes after treatment with PA in a concentration range of 75 to 150 [micro]mol/L by means of CCK-8 test.
(28) Expression of filaggrin is enhanced in conditions of hyperkeratinization
and thus serve as useful markers to distinguish non-keratinized from keratinized epithelia.
Hyperkeratosis or hyperkeratinization
(also known as retention hyperkeratosis) is a crucial event in the development of acne lesions, but the pathogenesis remains unclear.
There was also sparse singlecell hyperkeratinization
. No histochemical staining was seen with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) or mucicarmine stains, which were performed to further elucidate the diagnosis.