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Among the genetic predisposing factors, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been reported to be associated with NPC.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial disease, characterized by its distinctive racial and geographic distribution.[sup] It is rare in most parts of the world, but endemic in Southern China with an incidence rate of 20/100,000.[sup], The major etiological factors include genetic susceptibility, environment factors, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection.[sup] Among all genetic factors, human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) genes have been shown to have a strong and consistent association with NPC risk.[sup] HLA polymorphism can alter disease susceptibility and progression in some tumors.
Associations between human leukocyte antigen type and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Caucasians in the United States.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/HIV-1 coinfection and disease: role of human leukocyte antigen
At the core of the mismatch problem are human leukocyte antigens
, cell-surface proteins that help direct immune system functions.
Current BMT tissue matching uses serologic tests that compare donor and recipient human leukocyte antigens
(HLA), a group of five proteins found on the surfaces of cells.
In the case of kidney transplants, she says, a donor ideally should have two sets of three "human leukocyte antigens
," or HLAs--one set inherited from each parent--that match those of the recipient.
The problem is that only about 60% will have an ideal donor, in which all six markers, known as human leukocyte antigens
Alzheimer researchers are finding increasing evidence of immune components in the brain, including T cells, natural killer cells and human leukocyte antigens
. They say this suggests that the blood-brain barrier may not be as impermeable as scientists have assumed, or that the central nervous system may even have its own independent immune arsenal.