have been shown to play critical roles during osteogenesis of human MSCs.
Our working hypothesis was that intrauterine sex hormones (testosterone and progesterone) have been shown to regulate HOX gene
expression, influencing the development of acute leukemia in childhood which could result in a specific pattern of 2D:4D ratio in individuals affected by ALL since 2D: 4D has been proposed as a marker for prenatal hormone (testosterone and estrogen) exposure.
The researchers made the discovery while studying Hox genes
in the early stages of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.
To evaluate the expression of the top three upregulated HOX genes
, immunohistochemical staining was performed by tissue microarray.
(1999), the number of Hox genes
increased from eight genes in the protostome ancestor to at least 10 Hox genes
in the lophotrochozoan ancestor (Fig.
In previous work (2008 a) this author alluded to the use of macros in Lisp to model the action of Hox genes
. Here, we can elaborate further and claim--pace Atlan and his colleagues--that there is a case for using macros as a formalism that allows the same string of nucleotides both be program and data.
Furthermore, alteration of the epigenome through uncontrolled expression of posterior HOX genes
is thought to be an additional consequence of ASXL-1 mutations [73, 84].
Class1 genes called Hox genes
share a high degree of identity in their homeodomain.
[2,11] Patterning of the shapes of the different vertebrae is regulated by HOX genes
. The normal patterning of lumbar and sacral vertebrae as well as the changes in the axial pattern, such as lumbosacral transitional vertebra, results from mutations in the HOX- 10 and HOX-11 paralogous genes.
EGF secretion has been linked to HOX genes
transcriptional mechanisms implying that homeotic genes have a permissive role in controlling EGF gene expression (6).
Concerning these data, Hox genes
are strictly involved in the differentiation of the paramesonephric duct into the mature female reproductive system, and moreover their persistent expression in the adult, as reported by Taylor et al.
"By studying the role of Hox genes
during limb development, we were able to show, for the first time, that the patterning process that generates our fingers and toes relies on a Turing-like mechanism."