are clustered within the genome of many animals and play essential roles in patterning the body plan of metazoans.
Our patient's strong family history is suggestive of a genetic abnormality, possibly the result of an aberration in the combinatorial expression pattern of the Hox genes
Although Hox genes
may function upstream of Pitxl, Six1 and Nkx3-1 after Gen treatment, the converse may also be true.
In the embryo's first moments, the Hox genes
are dormant, packaged like a spool of wound yarn on the DNA.
To address this hypothesis, the evaluation of Hox gene
expression patterns may be informative since modifications to Hox gene
expression patterns or functions have been linked to changes in the morphologies and functions of appendages.
We know (O Nuallain, 2007a) that Hox genes
work at two levels, at least.
This is supported by several studies on RNA sequences (see, for example, Giribet et al, 2007) and also by observations on the distribution of Hox genes
(see below) and microRNAs (Sempere et al, 2007).
I am now wondering whether it might also tie in to the Hox gene
If it is determined that environmental endocrine disruptors with estrogenic activity can repress abdominal Hox gene
expression in the developing fetus, this mechanism provides an explanation of how transient in utero exposure to an endocrine disruptor(s) could lead to a permanent anomaly such as hypospadias.
asinina do not feed, so it will be important to examine patterns of Hox gene
expression in gastropods with a planktotrophic larva.
This particular Hox gene
may regulate the amount of grooming performed by an animal," Capecchi says.
Describing their work in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, lead researchers Robb Krumlauf and Leanne Wiedemann have revealed that they wanted to understand the "instruction manual" for a Hox gene
, which tells the early brain which genes to turn on, and in what order, to specify critical regions of the adult brain.