horizontal cell

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horizontal cell

A neuron of the inner nuclear layer of the retina. The axons of these cells run horizontally and connect various parts of the retina.
See also: cell
References in periodicals archive ?
In the niche of 3D retinal organoids, all retinal cells gradually appeared with retinal ganglion cells first generated, followed by photoreceptor cells, amacrine and horizontal cells, and lastly bipolar and Muller glial cells.
It is noteworthy that, despite the complexity and variety of retinal cells circuitry and coding, there are a few constancy factors common to them, valid even for amacrine and horizontal cells. The constancy of integrated sensitivity is one of these factors mentioned in the literature [13-15] which is quite useful for quantitative models for visual system.
Significant remodeling of horizontal cells was previously reported in both feline and rabbit models of retinal detachment [10, 11].
* The bipolar cells differentiate the responses of cones and horizontal cells which form the center and the surround of their receptive fields [20] [21] [22].
Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence of Otx proteins in the internal part of photoreceptors, in horizontal cells, in bipolar cells, and in neuronal cells.
Recent studies conducted in our laboratory confirmed the presence of the LIM-domain transcription factor Isl1 in differentiating and mature ganglion, amacrine, bipolar, and horizontal cells in the retina of mammals [54], birds [l8], reptiles [l2], and fish [9-ll].
Mouse horizontal cells do not express connexin26 or connexin36.
These include turning beds, with their lateral raising and lowering, or mattresses with alternately pulsating horizontal cells; the latter are assumed to provide therapeutic massage to the skin.
Grids were constructed in the 1-2-3 worksheet session by storing a string of keyboard symbols (such as =, -, or *) in consecutive horizontal cells (rows) and a broken vertical line keyboard symbol in consecutive vertical cells (columns).
The results were consistent with those obtained by other methods: photoreceptor somata and outer segments degenerated (Figure 5, staining 1), while inner retinal cells such as bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells survived (Figure 5, staining 2).
The team of neuroscientists shows that retinal horizontal cells, which are nerve cells once thought only to talk to neighboring nerve cells and not even to the brain, are light sensitive themselves.
The present study was designed to determine the effects of zinc on hemichannels formed by Cx26, a connexin expressed on dendrites of carp horizontal cells. In addition, we examined whether histidine, a zinc chelator, blocked the action of zinc or exerted a direct effect on Cx26 hemichannel currents.

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