* UVB absorbers: para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), cinoxate, ensulizole, homosalate
, octocrylene, octinoxate, octisalate, padimate O, trolamine salicylate
But for 12 other active ingredients (cinoxate, dioxybenzone, ensulizole, homosalate
, meradimate, octinoxate, octisalate, octocrylene, padimate O, sulisobenzone, oxybenzone, and avobenzone), there are insufficient data to make a "generally recognized as safe and effective" determination; thus, more data have been requested from the manufacturers.
However, some sunscreens contain potentially damaging chemicals like oxybenzone, octinoxate, PABA, homosalate
, octosalate and avobenzone that disrupt coral reproduction, cause coral bleaching, and damage coral DNA.
In general, look for products that include ingredients such as zinc and titanium in mineral-based sunscreens, and avobenzene, homosalate
, and octisalate in chemical-based sunscreens.
(These chemicals include; oxybenzone/benzophenone, octinoxate, octisalate/octocrylene, homosalate
, avobenzone, ethylhexl methoxycinnamate, parabens, "fragrance," and retinyl palmitate.) As Jeff Bagshaw from the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources says, "If you can't say it, don't spray it."
A chemical sunscreen is usually a cocktail of several ingredients such as avobenzone, oxybenzone, octinoxate, homosalate
, helioplex, etc.
l Oxybenzone, octinoxate and homosalate
Found in many sunscreens, lip balms, and other products with SPF, these chemicals can cause endometriosis and can pose a risk to reproductive systems.
The site lists other chemicals that can be harmful to corals: octinoxate (octyl methoxycinnamate), homosalate
, octocrylene, avobenzone, octisalate, homosalate
, fragrances and nano-particles ("clear"; TiO2; ZnO).
* Octisalate and homosalate
to fully enhance UVB radiation defense.
The frequency of each active component identified among the various samples was as follows: avobenzone, 88% (n=30); octo crylene, 82% (n = 28); octisalate, 73% (n=25); oxybenzone, 44% (n=15); homosalate
, 41% (n = 14); bemotrinizol, 38% (n=13); titanium dioxide, 32% (n=11); octinoxate, 17% (n=6); ensulizol, 17% (n=6); iscotrizinol, 5% (n=2); padimate O, 5% (n=2); octyltriazone, 3% (n=1).
* Benzophenone-3, 3-Benzylidene camphor, Padimate 0 and homosalate
are additional hormone disruptors commonly found in sunscreen.