Homogeneity of variance
was satisfactory for emotion-oriented coping (p=0.65) and negative beliefs about rumination (p=0.41) though not for metaworry.
The assumption of homoscedasticity or homogeneity of variance
is that the standard deviations of errors are approximately the same for all predicted DV scores that are presented in these Figures.
Table 8 summarizes the results of the descriptive statistics, Test of Homogeneity of Variances
and ANOVA which were applied to find the difference of significance level of self-perceived employability and PsyCap with respect to field of studies.
We aimed to provide a systematic examination of F-test robustness to violations of normality under homogeneity of variance
, applying Bradley's (1978) criterion.
The residual plot in Figure 4 indicates that the regression model is adequate and that the homogeneity of variance
assumption is satisfied.
Normality of the values, homogeneity of variance
and group comparisons were then carried out via Shapiro-Wilk, Levene's, and Duncan's methods.
Before this, we had checked if the main assumptions concerning normal distribution of dependent variable within groups as well as homogeneity of variance
were met .
For numerical variables (age, height, body weight, BMI, GLFS-25 score, and GDS-15 score), the normality of distribution and homogeneity of variance
were tested prior to comparison across groups.
Assumption of homogeneity of variance
was checked through Levenes test for equal variances.
The difference between the 7 groups was analyzed by the single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA one-way); difference between two groups was analyzed by the LSD method if the homogeneity of variance
was satisfied, and Dunnett's T3 method was used if the homogeneity of variance
was not satisfied; the test level was [alpha] = 0.05.
Levene's test was used to determine homogeneity of variances
and in case of homogeneity of variance
, post hoc Tukey test was used.
The normality of the MIR was assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smimov test, and homogeneity of variance
was assessed using the Bartlett test (Zar 1999).