Hofmeister series


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Hof·mei·ster ser·ies

(hof'mī-stĕr),
the series of cations Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, and of anions citrate3-, tartrate2-, SO42-, acetate-, NO3-, CIO3-, I-, CNS- (among others), each series arranged in order of decreasing ability to: precipitate the dispersed substance of lyophilic sols; "salt out" organic substances (for example, aniline, ethyl acetate) from aqueous solutions; or inhibit the swelling of gels. These effects, among other related ones, are ascribable to the abstraction and binding of water by these ions (that is, hydration), which also decreases in the orders given, so that (in the monovalent cation series) Li+, with the smallest crystal radius, has the largest hydrated radius, and vice versa for Cs+.
Synonym(s): lyotropic series
[Franz Hofmeister]

Hofmeister,

Franz, German biochemist, 1850-1922.
Hofmeister series - a series of cations and of anions. Synonym(s): lyotropic series
References in periodicals archive ?
The LCST of the mixture of PVA and PSSNa is strongly affected by the presence of Hofmeister series of anions.
According to Hofmeister series "kosmotropic" ions which are strongly hydrated anions effectively salt out polymers from aqueous solution whereas, "chaotropic" ions which are weakly hydrated shows salt in effect.
In case of thermal responsive polymer the Hofmeister series can be explained on the basis of direct interaction of these anions with macromolecules and its immediate nearby hydration shell [15].
However, to our knowledge, the detailed investigations of the effect of Hofmeister series of anions on the phase separation of mixture of polymer are still not available.
It will also improve our knowledge concerning about the effect of variation of concentration of mixture of polymers, proportion of both the polymers and Hofmeister series of anions on phase separation of the aqueous solutions of PVA/PSSNa having the similar molecular weight and chain length.
Na2SO4 (less than) NaF (less than) NaCl (less than) NaClO3 (less than) NaNO3 (less than) NaBr (less than) NaSCN, which is opposite to the classical Hofmeister series.
Addition of Hofmeister series of salts enhances the formation of complex between PVA and PSSNa which in turn decreases the LCST of the polymer Fig.
The order is opposite to "lyotropic series" or Hofmeister series of the anions.