Hodgkin's lymphoma

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any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue, including hodgkin's disease. Often used to denote malignant lymphoma, classifications of which are based on predominant cell type and degree of differentiation; various categories may be subdivided into nodular and diffuse types depending on the predominant pattern of cell arrangement.
adult T-cell lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma) adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
African lymphoma Burkitt's lymphoma.
B-cell l's a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies including most non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, representing clonal expansions of malignant B lymphocytes that have been arrested at a particular stage in their differentiation from primitive stem cells. B-cell lymphoma usually appears as a painless lymph node enlargement, although extranodal sites of origin are not uncommon. These lymphomas have been classified on the basis of morphologic features characteristic of the different stages of normal B lymphocyte differentiation.
Burkitt's lymphoma see burkitt's lymphoma.
lymphoma cu´tis primary skin involvement by a B-cell lymphoma without demonstrable systemic disease.
diffuse lymphoma malignant lymphoma in which the neoplastic cells infiltrate the entire lymph node without any organized pattern.
follicular lymphoma malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the lymph nodes that somewhat resemble the germinal centers of lymphatic nodules. Follicular lymphomas usually occur in older persons and commonly involve many or all nodes as well as extranodal sites. Called also nodular lymphoma.
follicular center cell lymphoma any of a large group of B-cell lymphomas, comprising four subtypes classified on the basis of the predominant cell type (resembling small cleaved, large cleaved, small noncleaved, and large noncleaved follicular center cells). Because of the wide variety of prognostic levels and the existence of tumors with several types of cells, the original four categories have now been divided up and scattered among several new categories of follicular and diffuse lymphomas.
giant follicular lymphoma follicular lymphoma.
granulomatous lymphoma Hodgkin's disease.
histiocytic lymphoma a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of intermediate to high malignancy, characterized by large tumor cells that resemble histiocytes morphologically but are considered to be of lymphoid origin. Many tumors formerly placed in this category are now considered to belong in one of the large cell lymphoma groups.
Hodgkin's lymphoma Hodgkin's disease.
large cell lymphoma any of several types of lymphoma characterized by formation of malignant large lymphocytes in a diffuse pattern; some varieties contain exclusively one type of cell, such as lymphoblasts or cleaved or uncleaved follicular center cells, and others have a mixture of cells, sometimes including ones that cannot be characterized as to lineage.
Lennert's lymphoma a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a high content of epithelioid histiocytes; bone marrow involvement is common and response to chemotherapy is often poor.
lymphoblastic lymphoma a highly malignant type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma composed of a diffuse, relatively uniform proliferation of cells with round or convoluted nuclei and scanty cytoplasm, which are cytologically similar to the lymphoblasts seen in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
malignant lymphoma a group of malignant neoplasms characterized by the proliferation of cells native to the lymphoid tissues, i.e., lymphocytes, histiocytes, and their precursors and derivatives. The group is divided into two major categories: hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a mixed population of cells, with the smaller cells resembling lymphocytes and the larger ones histiocytes, usually occurring in a nodular histologic pattern but sometimes evolving into a diffuse pattern.
nodular lymphoma follicular lymphoma.
non-Hodgkin's l's a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphomas whose common feature is absence of the giant Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of hodgkin's disease. They arise from the lymphoid components of the immune system, and present a clinical picture broadly similar to that of Hodgkin's disease except that these diseases are initially more widespread, with the most common manifestation being painless enlargement of one or more peripheral lymph nodes. The nomenclature and classification of these lymphomas has been a subject of controversy. One widely accepted classification is based on two criteria: cytologic characteristics of the constituent cells and type of cell growth pattern (defined as either nodular [follicular] or diffuse). Another system of classification is based on the cell type of origin: T- or B-lymphocytes or histiocytes. Still another formulation has been proposed, separating non-Hodgkin's lymphomas into major histopathologic subtypes using only morphologic criteria.

Diagnostic procedures used to confirm suspected non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include PET scans, gallium scans, and occasionally lymphangiograms. If lymphoma is diagnosed, it will be staged using the same system as for Hodgkin's disease.

Treatment will depend on the type and stage. It may be single agent or multiagent chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biotherapy, or a combination. Blood transfusions and bone marrow transplantation have shown efficacy for some types of lymphoma.

Patient care: major problems presented by the patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include the management of side effects associated with treatment and the prevention of infection.
small lymphocytic lymphoma a diffuse form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a low grade of malignancy; it represents the neoplastic proliferation of well-differentiated B lymphocytes and may present with either focal lymph node enlargement or generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The predominant cell type is a compact, small, normal-appearing lymphocyte with a dark-staining round nucleus, scanty cytoplasm, and little size variation. It nearly always involves the bone marrow, and often malignant cells are found in the blood, so that its clinical picture is similar to that of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Called also well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma.
T-cell l's a heterogeneous group of lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformation of the T lymphocytes. Types include convoluted T-cell lymphomas, cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, adult T-cell leukemia, and certain other conditions.
undifferentiated lymphoma malignant lymphoma composed of undifferentiated cells, i.e., cells that do not show morphologic evidence of maturation toward lymphocytes or histiocytes, which vary in size and may include bizarre giant forms.
well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma small lymphocytic lymphoma.

Hodgkin's disease, Hodgkin's lymphoma

Etymology: Thomas Hodgkin, English physician, 1798-1866
a malignant disorder characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue, usually first evident in cervical lymph nodes; splenomegaly; and the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, large binucleate CD20 (B cell marker)-positive lymphoid/histiocytic cells. Symptoms include anorexia, weight loss, generalized pruritus, low-grade fever, night sweats, anemia, and leukocytosis. The disease is diagnosed in about 7100 Americans annually and causes approximately 1700 deaths a year, affects twice as many males as females, and most often occurs in individuals 25 to 30 years of age and older than 50 years of age. The diagnosis is established by biopsy. The patient undergoes staging to determine the extent of the disease, including computed tomography of the chest and abdomen, complete blood count, biopsy of distant lymph nodes, liver function studies, and bilateral bone marrow biopsies. Radiotherapy, using a covering mantle to protect other organs, is the treatment of choice for early stages of the disease; combination chemotherapy is the treatment for advanced disease. Long-term remissions are achieved in more than half of the patients treated, and 60% to 90% of those with localized disease may be cured. There is a threefold increased risk of development of Hodgkin's disease in first-degree relatives, suggesting an unknown genetic mechanism.
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Lymph node sites for Hodgkin's disease

Hodgkin's lymphoma

A form of cancer of lymphatic tissue especially lymph nodes. There is widespread, painless lymph node enlargement and, later, spleen and liver enlargement, fever and anaemia. Sometimes the bone marrow is involved, usually at a late stage of the disease. Treatment is with radiotherapy and, if necessary, with drugs such as cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and vincristine. In general, the outlook for this once invariably fatal disease, is now good. (Thomas Hodgkin, 1798–1866, English physician)
References in periodicals archive ?
Hodgin's office is located in the Ashland Design Studio alongside Julie O Interior Design.
Hodgin's son Jonathan Joe Hodgin, 36, who had left the scene, eventually was found by deputies and arrested.
Birkenhead neighbourhood inspector Duncan Swan said Alfie Hodgin's ASBO had been imposed in a bid to curb his antisocial behaviour and protect the community, and said he hoped it sent out a strong message that individuals whose behaviour affects the wider community would not be tolerated.
Inspector Swan said: "The public need to be aware of [Alfie] Hodgin's behaviour and the conditions that the court has imposed on him.
Hodgin's barrister, Gavin Doig, said his client had a substantial loan and more costs of about pounds 2,000 were to come from the electricity company.
They took part in a sponsored Readathon at Etone Community School and raised the money for Sargent Cancer Care for Children and the Roald Dahl Foundation, which helps children in the UK who are suffering from cancer, Hodgin's disease, leukaemia, epilepsy, or head injuries.
One of the Audis, worth pounds 21,000, was recovered and Hodgin's DNA was found in it.