All children received in ophthalmic department underwent evaluation of visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity after cycloplegic refraction, fundoscopy, assessment for squint using Hirschberg test
and cover uncover test, stereopsis testing using Titmus test and detailed anterior and posterior segment examination.
Examinations done between 1 and 4 months of age include inspection of the eye and adnexa, red reflex examination, Hirschberg test
, and pupillary light reflex test.
Traditional strabismus diagnosis methods, for example, cover test, Hirschberg test
, and Maddox rod, are manually conducted by professional ophthalmologists.
was performed by an experienced ophthalmologist, and the results ranged from 0 to 45[degrees] (15.3[degrees] [+ or -] 12.4[degrees]).
Angle of deviation was measured both for >6m and for near and in case of spectacles both with and without them by Hirschberg test
and prism bar cover test.
While generations of optometrists have relied on the reflective specks of a Hirschberg test
to confirm a strabismus, the limits of human vision confine detection to the scale of thousandths of a metre--so the smaller squints may be missed.
Pre-and postoperative eye deviation measurements were based on the prism-cover test in adults and the Hirschberg test
on children without cooperation.
The squint examination involves observation and a light torch test looking at the light reflexes of both corneas (Hirschberg test
) which can give you clues to a deviated eye.
and cover/uncover tests were done and recorded to document any squint.
Visual acuity score <8/10 (0.1 logMAR) (<6/10 for children under 6 years of age) or [greater than or equal to]3 lines difference between two eyes, because this may be an indicator of amblyopia was accepted as decreased visual acuity cut-off for referral.8-10 Strabismus was examined using cover/ uncover test and the Hirschberg test
The angle of preoperative and postoperative deviations were assessed by Hirschberg test
, Krimsky test or alternate prism cover test (in prism diopters [PD]) when possible.
revealed esodeviation of right eye around 300 (Fig 1).