For descriptive analysis, explanatory variables (gender, delivery type, low birth weight, high birth weight
, breastfeeding type, difficulty in breastfeeding, formula, cow milk, water, tea, juice and porridge consumption and use of pacifiers) were described in percentages in the tables.
High birth weight
has also been implicated as a risk factor for adult cancers (breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate) (19).
Kandhal and Miller (2013) reviewed variables significant to schizophrenia and found several common risk factors such as gestational diabetes and high birth weights
According to the Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U test performed to determine the origin of the difference, no statistically significant difference was found between the mean scores of the mothers whose babies were born with a normal birth weight and with a high birth weight
This study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of prenatal physical activity interventions, alone or in combination with nutritional counselling, on GWG and to address whether preventing excessive GWG decreases the incidence of infant high birth weight
and/or postpartum weight retention.
A high birth weight
and rapid weight gain during the first year of life also increase the risk, the study indicated.
High birth weight
babies are more likely to be delivered by Caesarean section or need other kinds of intervention that may lead to complications.
Disaggregated maternal and child health assessment data for King County, Washington, show high percentages of maternal overweight and obesity before pregnancy, maternal smoking, younger maternal age, late or no prenatal care, preterm birth, and high birth weight
in the local Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population, compared with the local Asian population, leading to the identification of important health concerns in the NHPI community.
All continuous variables were categorized: gestational age (premature <37 weeks, mature/normal 37-41 weeks, and post-mature >41 weeks); birth weight (low birth weight <2500g, normal birth weight 2500-4499g, and high birth weight
>4500g); year of birth (1986-1990, 1991-1995, and 19962000); mother's age at birth (<30 years, 30-34 years, >35 years); and RN mother's educational attainment (diploma, undergraduate degree, and graduate degree).
Variables that increase the risk of overweight in childhood include formula feeding, high birth weight
, high rate of weight gain in the first 4 months of life, low socioeconomic status, and maternal obesity (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, systematic reviews and consistent cohort studies).
Women's records were examined for the following adverse birth outcomes: very low birth weight (less than 1,500 g), low birth weight (less than 2,500 g), high birth weight
(at least 4,000 g).
Low birth weight and high birth weight
infants are both at an increased risk to have type 2 diabetes among schoolchildren in Taiwan.