The first properly documented reconstruction is credited to Ernest Hey Groves of Bristol (1872-1944), who in 1917 used the entire ITB, which he detached from Gerdy's tubercle, passed through tunnels in femur and tibia and sewed to the periosteum of the tibia (Hey Groves 1917) (Figure 10).
In 1918 the Welsh surgeon Alwyn Smith (1884-1931) proposed a modification to the Hey Groves technique, using only a section of the ITB which he detached from its muscle belly, pulled through femoral and tibial tunnels and placed over the medial joint space to reinforce the MCL (Smith 1918).
Hey Groves EW 1917 Operation for the repair of crucial ligaments Lancet 190:674-5
During World War I, Hey Groves of England reported the use of metallic rods for the treatment of gunshot wounds.
These nails were originally inserted using a closed method in order to avoid the high infection rate reported earlier by Hey Groves. However, with the utilization of penicillin, Street transitioned to open retrograde nailing to avoid side effects of the radiographic techniques of the day.