3] receptor functions as a heteroreceptor
, regulating the release of other central neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and serotonin, which can modulate learning and memory processes.
961] Also, genetic studies with presynaptic GABA(B) heteroreceptor
knockout mice  and GAD65 (a GABA-synthesizing enzyme) knockout mice  found that these knockouts resulted in a generalized fear response.
Carbamylated EPO (CEPO) does not bind to the classical EPOR isoform, and is devoid of classic haematopoietic activity (5,30) (Table 1), yet has been shown to provide tissue protection in the brain, heart (31) and kidney (30), supporting the existence of a heteroreceptor
EPO isoform, which mediates tissue protection.
Synaptic transmission by endogenous neurotransmitters via autoreceptors or heteroreceptors
is modulated within neuronal circuits.
Over the long term, the brain tries to compensate for the SSRI-induced serotonin levels and restore energy homeostasis by decreasing serotonin production and activating 5-HT1A heteroreceptors
that inhibit the artificially excited neurons.
2] adrenergic inhibitory autoreceptors and heteroreceptors
It is an antagonist at central presynaptic alpha-adrenergic inhibitory autoreceptors and heteroreceptors
, which increases the central noradrenergic and serotonergic activity and 5HT2A receptor blockade that may enhance cortical dopamine neurotransmission (52).
44] These metabotropic receptors are both autoreceptors and heteroreceptors
that mediate the release of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and glutamate.