B and C--one-week post-exposure snails, presenting many granulomatous structures (g) containing developing larvae (l), note the increase of interstitial spaces among the muscle fibers in the tissue, and part of digestive gland (dg); D and E--three-week post-exposure snails, presenting a granuloma (g) with many larval profiles (l) and a greater amount of collagenous fibers in the tissue near the granuloma, and another larva in a longitudinal cross section showing part of the sheath (s) around the larval body and intense hemocyte
infiltration (ih); F--A general view of the cephalopedal mass region, with granulomatous structures with larval profiles in them (circle) without calcium presence.
The initial copy number of CsRV1 in the hemocytes
was used to divide the animals into low (n = 9), moderate (n = 10), high infection (n = 10), and noninfected (n = 10) groups.
Homeopathic treatment formulated by pathogenic bacteria showed the high hemocytes
counts which were one to three times higher than controls (C3, C2, and C1).
Integrin-like-positive cells (probably hemocytes
) were found in the adult mussel mantle (Figure 1).
Tao et al., "Molecular profiling of phagocytic immune cells in Anopheles gambiae reveals integral roles for hemocytes
in mosquito innate immunity," Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, vol.
Similar to most other chordates, ascidian hemocytes
are continually renewed to compensate for cell death and external sources of loss (Ermak, 1982).
Miyata et al., "Tachyplesin, a class of antimicrobial peptide from the hemocytes
of the horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus).
Strand, "Insect hemocytes
and their role in immunity," Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.
He = Hemocytes
; Ht = Hematocrit; Hb = Hemoglobin; GV = globular volume; CH = corpuscular hemoglobin; CACH = corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
Six larvae from each group were dissected to collect fat body, midgut, hemocytes
, malpighian tubule and epidermis at different time points after injection, respectively.
Total RNA was extracted from fat bodies and hemocytes
using the RNeasy[TM] kit and reverse transcribed using the Omniscript[R] Reverse Transcription kit (www.qiagen.com) exactly as previously described (Shelby & Popham 2009).
Humoral immunity includes antimicrobial peptides, clotting cascade, and prophenoloxidase, and the cellular defenses of shrimp depend on hemocytes
that have many functions such as production of antimicrobial compounds, apoptosis, nodule formation, encapsulation of pathogens, cell adhesion, wound healing, coagulation, and phagocytosis [26, 27].