Of these specimens, 78 (5.7%) were confirmed by hemagglutinin
inhibition (HI) assay to be positive for H9, and sequencing data for 55 virus isolates were generated.
With 18 hemagglutinin
varieties and 11 types of neuraminidase -- most carried by birds -- there are lots of potential combinations.
The objective of the study was to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of IAVchip DNA microarray in differential detection of 16 hemagglutinin
and 9 neuraminidase IAV subtypes as compared to virus isolation in chicken embryos, real-time PCR, and RT-PCR.
"It looks like these antibodies need to cross-link two hemagglutinins
to have maximum effect," said Wilson.
A fourth change in hemagglutinin
may affect how well the virus can fuse with cells in ferret--and presumably human--hosts.
(2000) Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins
after their introduction into mammals.
The properties and biological activities of lectins/ hemagglutinins
from different cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris are compared and summarized in Table 4.
Prediction of possible mutations in H5N1 hemagglutinins
of influenza A virus by means of logistic regression.
Image of influenza virus showing hemagglutinin
(blue) and neuraminidase (red) proteins on the surface of the virus.
The virus's hemagglutinin
molecules append itself to the surface of cells lining the respiratory tract.
(HA) of avian influenza virus strains shows preferential binding to SA[alpha]2,3 receptors, which partially accounts for the reduced ability of avian influenza strains to establish infections in humans (3).
In parallel to IgG detection for control groups, we also evaluated IgG levels against seasonal influenza virus hemagglutinins
H1 and H3 by ELISA of the 15 paired serum samples (Figure 3, panel A).