In parallel to IgG detection for control groups, we also evaluated IgG levels against seasonal influenza virus hemagglutinins
H1 and H3 by ELISA of the 15 paired serum samples (Figure 3, panel A).
The drop in pH alters the shape of the viral hemagglutinin
, thereby allowing the virus to fuse to the cell and open an entry for the virus' RNA to come in and start making fresh viruses.
We tested only for seroreactivity to the H5 hemagglutinin
and the N1 neuraminidase; therefore, further studies are needed to determine whether different avian origin influenza viruses are present in the guinea pig population.
Because viral hemagglutinin
is a critical determinant of the host specificity of influenza virus (10), we compared the nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences for the canine and equine H3 to identify residues that may be associated with efficient replication in different species or dog breeds.
genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses constitute unique phylogenetic lineages?
Receptor determinants of human and animal influenza virus isolates: differences in receptor specificity of the H3 hemagglutinin
based on species of origin.
Dissociation of influenza virus hemagglutinin
and neuraminidase eliminates their intravirionic antigenic competition.
and neuraminidase surface antigens were totally different from those of their 1956 predecessors.
The antigenic structure of the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin
A two-amino acid change in the hemagglutinin
of the 1918 influenza virus abolishes transmission.
It looks like these antibodies need to cross-link two hemagglutinins
to have maximum effect," said Wilson.
To create the combination virus, the researchers replaced a sugar-spiked protein called hemagglutinin
(the H in H5N1) found in the 2009 virus with one from the bird flu virus.