With 18 hemagglutinin
varieties and 11 types of neuraminidase -- most carried by birds -- there are lots of potential combinations.
A two-amino acid change in the hemagglutinin
of the 1918 influenza virus abolishes transmission.
It looks like these antibodies need to cross-link two hemagglutinins
to have maximum effect," said Wilson.
A fourth change in hemagglutinin
may affect how well the virus can fuse with cells in ferret--and presumably human--hosts.
2000) Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins
after their introduction into mammals.
Its N-terminal sequence, ATETYSAFQRFCETNIFIQR, resembled those of other Phaseolus hemagglutinins
Prediction of possible mutations in H5N1 hemagglutinins
of influenza A virus by means of logistic regression.
High levels of IgG against H1 and H3 hemagglutinins
were detected in the 2 control groups, as were GMT values of 2,070.
The virus's hemagglutinin
molecules append itself to the surface of cells lining the respiratory tract.
WB analysis of pooled samples from the 3 areas confirmed the ELISA results that showed antibodies against the hemagglutinin
and nucleoprotein antigens; however, samples from Manabi region (7,8) showed immunoreactivity to the H3 antigen only (Figure 2).
of the influenza A(H3N2)v viruses differed substantially from the hemagglutinin
of the 2011-12 human seasonal vaccine virus, A/Perth/16/2011 (58-60 aa), which resulted from divergent evolutionary paths for the H3 hemagglutinin
in swine and human viruses.
However, no serologic evidence indicates that residue 107 modulates the antigenicity of human, porcine, or equine H3 hemagglutinins