congenital heart defect

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existing at, and usually before, birth; referring to conditions that are present at birth, regardless of their causation. Cf. hereditary.
congenital heart defect a structural defect of the heart or great vessels or both, present at birth. Any number of defects may occur, singly or in combination. They result from improper development of the heart and blood vessels during the prenatal period. Congenital heart defects occur in about 8 to 10 of every 1000 live-born children in the United States. The most common types are tetralogy of fallot, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, transposition of great vessels, and coarctation of the aorta.

In many cases, depending on the severity of the defect and the physical condition of the patient, these congenital conditions can be treated by surgery. However, some are so minor that they do not significantly affect the action of the heart and do not require surgery. The cause of most of these conditions is unknown. Gene abnormalities account for about 5 per cent, and in a small number of other cases they may be seen in a child whose pregnant mother had rubella (German measles) during the first 2 or 3 months of pregnancy.


an imperfection, failure, or absence.
congenital heart defect see congenital heart defect.
aortic septal defect see aortic septal defect.
atrial septal defect see atrial septal defect.
filling defect an interruption in the contour of the inner surface of stomach or intestine revealed by radiography, indicating excess tissue or substance on or in the wall of the organ.
neural tube defect see neural tube defect.
septal defect a defect in the cardiac septum resulting in an abnormal communication between opposite chambers of the heart. Common types are aortic septal defect, atrial septal defect, and ventricular septal defect. See also congenital heart defect.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

congenital heart defect

A structural abnormality of the heart and great blood vessels that occurs during intrauterine development. Abnormalities are commonly classified by the presence or absence of cyanosis. Acyanotic abnormalities include atrial and ventricular septal defects, coarctation of the aorta, and patent ductus arteriosus. Cyanotic defects include tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, and hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome.
See also: defect
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and infant risk of congenital heart defects in Norway 1999-2009.
A new study now shows that pregnant women with type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of having babies with heart defects.
Conclusion: The measurement of pre-and post-ductal oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was an effective screening tool for the detection of critical congenital heart defects in newborns.
"Usually this type of heart defect is detected in infancy or childhood, but this patient had a delayed presentation which is seen in very few cases," said the doctor adding that normally such cases do not survive beyond infancy since the heart defect puts huge pressure on the lungs.
It is not clear what causes most congenital heart defects, although previous research has suggested that factors such as maternal smoking and diabetes may elevate risk.
All mothers from the study group underwent at least two prenatal examinations in which the congenital heart defects were diagnosed.
Although few hospital based studies have been conducted at the regional level to show the prevalence of CHD, unfortunately data of the incidence or prevalence at national level that can show the burden of congenital heart defect in our country, is not available.
Prevalence of congenital heart defects in metropolitan Atlanta, 1998-2005.
Most recently, some of the same researchers that published the early reports out of Hungary on protection against congenital heart defects showed evidence that a variety of congenital heart defects could be reduced with folic acid supplementation of between 3 mg and 6 mg daily (Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol.
Linda Partridge, WellChild's director of programmes, said: "We're particularly excited that this role is the first of its kind to focus on providing expert feeding advice to help children with more serious heart defects thrive in advance of life-saving surgery and other treatment."
His heart defect was so serious that midwives at James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough had advised Sarah to think about a termination.
RARE SURGERY: Mohammed Shareef, with his week-old daughter who was operated on for a congenital heart defect in a rare kind of heart surgery in Makkah.