Submitted to the Hawkins test, that verifies the conflict between the supraspinous muscle tendon and the coracoid acromial ligament, the patient A.A., according to table no.
3 Specific functional tests at the shoulder's level Patient Neer test Painful arch test Hawkins test Jobe test A.A.
Positive Hawkins test was significantly associated (P < 0.05) with positive Neer's test (OR = 9.38), Speed's test (OR= 11.05), lift off test (OR= 8.68) and isometric contraction of supraspinatus (OR= 6.98).
Positive Hawkins test and apprehension relocation tests were present in 38.02% and 11.26% respectively of those who did not admit having current shoulder pain.
60.89% archers had positive Hawkins tests of impingement; out of which 71.57% had current shoulder pain.
(ii) Hawkins test position (90[degrees] forward flexion of the shoulder with internal rotation of 15[degrees] and 90[degrees] flexion of the elbow)
[+ or -] 1.7 mm in the Neer test, 25.5 [+ or -] 6.6 mm in the Hawkins test, and 27.8 [+ or -] 4.4 mm in the horizontal impingement test, significantly less than 40.2 [+ or -] 4.2 mm in the neutral position (p < 0.001).
In the Hawkins test, superior and anterosuperior impingement with deformation (grade 2) of the supraspinatus was seen in four subjects; contact without deformation (grade 1) was observed in 14 (p < 0.001).
The Hawkins test narrowed the distance between the insertions of the subscapularis and supraspinatus and the anterosuperior labrum, leading to mechanical contact of the tendons and a potential provocation of an anterior internal impingement (ASI).
Shoulder position 90[degrees] abduction +15[degrees] Mechanical contact internal rotation 170[degrees] abduction "horizontal "Neer test" impingement test" No impingement 5.4 18.9 Impingement without 86.5 67.6 deformation Impingement with 8.1 13.5 deformation Overall 100.0 100.0 Mechanical contact Neutral 90[degrees] flexion, position + 15[degrees] internal rotation "Hawkins test" No impingement 100.0 51.4 Impingement without 0 37.8 deformation Impingement with 0 10.8 deformation Overall 100.0 100.0 Table 2: Mechanical contact between the infraspinatus and the glenoid labrum (in %).
Use the Neer test (raising the arm "'near" the face; have the patient place his hand on the unaffected shoulder and gradually forward-flex the shoulder) and Hawkins test
(rotating the upper arm like a hawk's wing; position the patient standing with the shoulder abducted 90 degrees, and internally rotate the forearm).
Empirical critical values for Hawkins test
statistic have been obtained via a Monte Carlo simulation that is described in the next section.