The EU has been such an ambitious enterprise mainly because it has sought a union over the former Carolingian, Prussian, Hapsburg
, Byzantine and Ottoman domains, all with starkly different histories and development patterns.
Confronted with such diversity, Judson shows why the Hapsburg
Empire mattered for so long to millions of central Europeans, across linguistic, regional, and cultural divides.
Later, the Turks destroyed Visegrad and in 1702 the Hapsburgs
blew up the citadel to prevent Hungarian freedom fighters from using it.
were most successful when they tackled this, inside their domains, by 'tact, economic pressure, and the promise of bureaucratic jobs'.
dynasty left an amazing legacy of grand palaces, historic landmarks and world-famous art.
During the War of the Mantuan Succession (1628-31) Scaglia's influence declined after Buckingham's death and as his dukes came closer to France while he remained a firm supporter of Hapsburg
Stephen's Cathedral to the magnificent Imperial Palace, the main residence for the Hapsburgs
A visit to the crypt, the official Hapsburg
burial place, is not to be missed, if only for its macabre layout.
Stephansdom (Vienna's landmark medieval church) because it is the oldest tombs (entrails of some of the Hapsburgs
, who ruled Austria for 700 years, are buried here), and the downtown," she said.
The administrator, or gerant, of public affairs is a member of the ruling, truly aristocratic creme of high bureaucracy, a worshiper of Reason, state intervention, and planning--thus a figure reminiscent of the old, Spanish-Austrian civil servant of the Hapsburgs
, who typically received his education at the feet of learned monks.
Their attempts at armed insurrection against their oppressors can be counted on the fingers of one hand, and consequently, it would appear, they have lived under domination by everyone from the Vatican to the Hapsburgs
to the Nazis to the Soviets for all but a few years of their history.
The power that ruled the Czechs was German since their last king, Ottokar, was defeated by the Hapsburgs
some 600 years ago.