Seasonal infection intensity cycle of the parasite Perkinsus marinus (and an absence of Haplosporidium
virginica on the east coast of the United States with dual infections of Haplosporidium
nelsoni and P.
Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of Haplosporidium
costale and Perkinsus marinus in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin, 1971.
Effects of sublethal infection by the parasite Haplosporidium
nelsoni (MSX) on gametogenesis spawning and sex ratios of oysters in Delaware Bay USA.
nelson in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Haskin and Ford, 1979; Allen Jr.
By 2006, this 54-yr record covered a number of unique periods, including the period of time after the onset of MSX, a disease caused by the protozoan Haplosporidium
nelsoni, circa 1957 (Haskin and Andrews, 1988; Ford, 1997) and the period after the onset of Dermo, a disease caused by the protozoan Perkinsus marinus, circa 1990 (Ford, 1996; Cook et al.
And infection by Haplosporidium
nelsoni (MSX) on the tissue condition of oysters, Crassostrea virginica.
Burreson EM, Mann R, Allen Jr SK (1994) Field exposure of triploid Crassotrea gigas, to Haplosporidium
nelson (MSX) and Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) in the lower Chesapeake Bay.
A third "Dark Age" began for the oyster industry in the late 1950's when a new disease, later named MSX aid caused by the Haplosporidium
nelsoni parasite, began to kill huge quantities of oysters in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays.
Differential diagnosis of mixed Haplosporidium
costale and Haplosporidium
nelsoni infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, using DNA probes.
Labeled "salinity refuges," estuaries with a lower incidence of parasitism in some hosts have been studied in several systems on the East and Gulf coasts of North America, including the Virginia oyster Crassostria virginica with its protozoan parasite Haplosporidium
nelsoni (Haskin et al.
Unfortunately, for managing oyster populations, obstacles exist in meeting this objective because oyster populations do not appear to be inherently equilibrious, particularly those subjected to MSX, a disease caused by the protozoan Haplosporidium
nelsoni, or Dermo, a disease caused by the protozoan Perkinsus marinus.