Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid
However, because Hymenoptera are haplodiploid
and the males are fatherless, the male will be the father only of the female offspring.
have diploid females and haploid males.
Outbreeding depression, but no inbreeding depression in haplodiploid
ambrosia beetles with regular sibling mating.
In hymenopteran insects (ants, wasps, bees), haplodiploid
sex determination allows females to produce male and female offspring in variable proportions (Wilson, 1976; Thorahill and Alcock, 1983).
An additional bias is favored in haplodiploid
species because inbreeding causes mothers to be more related to their daughters than their sons (Frank 1985; Herre 1985).
and diploid models with sibling and parental control of the brood sex ratio and brood size.
pentagona, like all armored scale insects, is haplodiploid
due to the elimination of the paternal chromosome set during development of the male eggs; males are haploid (N = 8) while females are diploid (N = 16) (Bennett and Brown 1958).
All this suggests the occurrence of diploid males is a normal occurrence in the haplodiploid
system, but it remains a rare event (within the context of the life span of a species).
When one or both loci are sex-linked, or a haplodiploid
sex determination system applies, then this method readily permits the use of data from both males and females in estimating the degree of disequilibrium.
The additional attributes of polyphagy and haplodiploid
sex determination result in an ability of populations to develop insecticide resistance quickly (Reitz & Funderburk 2012), and invasive populations largely were resistant to broad-spectrum insecticides before they became invasive (Immaraju et al.
Adaptive topography in fertility viability selection models - the haplodiploid