Hapalochlaena maculosa

Either of two species (Hapalochlaena maculosa, H lunulata) of small octopi which habitat tidal pools in the Pacific Ocean including the Great Barrier Reef. They have up to golf ball sized bodies and measure 8–10 cm when stretched from one tip of the tentacle to the other. They carry enough venom to kill 26 adult humans. When at rest, they are brown-pale yellow; when disturbed, they turn bright yellow and display blue rings around their tentacles. Blue-ringed octopi release tetrodotoxin (formerly known as maculotoxin, produced by bacteria in the host’s salivary glands), an inhibitor of action potential which blocks sodium channels, causing motor paralysis and respiratory arrest. The completeness of the motor paralysis is such that victims cannot signal that they cannot breathe.
Management There is no antidote; rescue breathing must begin immediately and must be maintained for as long as it takes for the toxin to work its way out of the victim’s body—up to 24 hours
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Additional sequences from other Octopus species (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus insularis, Octopus maya Voss & Solis 1966, Octopus mimus Gould 1852, and Octopus bimaculoides Pickford & McConnaughey 1949), as well as Hapalochlaena maculosa Hoper & Hochberg 1988, were obtained from GenBank for the comparative analysis of the divergence among sequences and the rooting of the phylogenetic groups (details are provided in Appendix A (Strugnell et al.
Maculotoxin: a neurotoxin from the venom glands of the octopus Hapalochlaena maculosa identified as tetrodotoxin.
The blue-ringed octopuses Hapalochlaena maculosa and H lunulata - found around the coasts of Australia and parts of south-east Asia - both carry a neurotoxic venom so potent that their relatively painless bite can kill humans in a matter of minutes.