A wealth of new phenomena will be studied, including longitudinal-transverse coupling, resistive-wall instability, halo formation
, resonance traversal, evolution of energy spread, and emittance growth due to several possible causes.
However, so-called "dark matter" - matter whose presence is inferred from its gravity but isn't directly visible - may pose a problem to this model of halo formation
. Our galaxy's halo appears to contain 10 to 100 times more dark matter than observed dwarf spheroidals do.