Haldane's rule


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Haldane's rule

a rule that states that where one sex of the offspring of a cross is infertile this is invariably the heterogametic sex.
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Male [F.sub.1] hybrids being partially fertile while females are infertile contrasts with the usual variation between the sexes in reduced fertility (Haldane's rule) and may be of interest for future research.
[F.sub.1] males having at least some fertility, the infertility of female [F.sub.1] hybrids, thus being an exception to Haldane's Rule), and raise questions about future interaction and survival of these species.
Exceptions to the fertility aspect of Haldane's rule have indeed been rare, especially among Drosophila, where males are the heterozygous (heterogametic) sex (Bock 1984).
Known as Haldane's Rule (Haldane 1922), this phenomenon has been most extensively documented in Drosophila, where it is the [F.sub.1] male that is sterile (Bock 1984).
These authors suggest that the frequent co-occurrence of sex-ratio distorters and suppressors could explain Haldane's rule - the fact that when one sex is affected in hybrid crosses, it is generally the heterogametic sex (Haldane 1922).
This explains the frequent observation of Haldane's rule: the pattern that if only one gender of hybrids is sterile or inviable in species crosses, it is nearly always the heterogametic (XY or XO) sex (Haldane 1922; Coyne and Orr 1989b).
Much research on the genetics of speciation is devoted to elucidating the underlying genetics of Haldane's rule (Haldane 1922): the observation that in interspecific crosses the sterile or inviable sex is nearly always the heterogametic sex (see Coyne and Orr 1989; Wu et al.
1982; Clarke and Ford 1980; Vigneault and Zouros 1986; Tegelstrom and Gelter 1990), in which case, Haldane's rule applies (Haldane 1922).
Haldane's rule (1922) states that "when in the [F.sub.1] offspring of two different animal types one sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is the heterozygous (heterogametic or XY) sex." Read and Nee (1991) have suggested that the available evidence favoring Haldane's rule is not significant.
Brookfield (1993) suggests five tests that he claims establish the statistical significance of Haldane's Rule, contrary to our conclusion (Read and Nee 1991).
One of the most striking generalizations in evolutionary biology is "Haldane's rule," the observation that if only one sex is sterile or inviable in the offspring of a cross between two species, it is nearly always the heterogametic sex (Haldane, 1922).