Halcion


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Related to Halcion: Halcyon Days

triazolam

Apo-Triazo (CA), Gen-Triazolam (CA), Halcion

Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine

Therapeutic class: Sedative-hypnotic

Controlled substance schedule IV

Pregnancy risk category X

Action

Inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid, a neurotransmitter that activates receptors at limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic levels of CNS

Availability

Tablets: 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg

Indications and dosages

Insomnia

Adults: 0.125 to 0.5 mg P.O. at bedtime p.r.n. After 7 to 10 days, decrease dosage gradually and then discontinue.

Dosage adjustment

• Elderly or debilitated patients

Off-label uses

• Presurgical hypnotic

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or other benzodiazepines

• Concurrent use of itraconazole, ketoconazole, or nefazodone

• Pregnancy

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• hepatic or renal dysfunction, sleep apnea, respiratory compromise, psychosis

• history of suicide attempt or drug abuse

• elderly or debilitated patients

• breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 18 (safety and efficacy not established).

Administration

• Don't give with grapefruit juice.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, excessive sedation, hangover, headache, anterograde or traveler's amnesia, confusion, incoordination, lethargy, depression, paradoxical excitation, light-headedness, psychological disturbance, euphoria

GI: nausea, vomiting

Other: physical or psychological drug dependence, drug tolerance, withdrawal symptoms (tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, diaphoresis, dysphoria, perceptual disturbances, insomnia)

Interactions

Drug-drug. Antidepressants, antihistamines, chloral hydrate, opioid analgesics, other psychotropic drugs: additive CNS depression

Cimetidine, disulfiram, fluconazole, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, rifampin, and other drugs that inhibit CYP450-3A4-mediated metabolism: decreased oxidative metabolism and increased action of triazolam

Digoxin: increased digoxin blood level, greater risk of toxicity

Macrolide anti-infectives (such as azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin): increased triazolam bioavailability

Probenecid: rapid onset and prolonged effects of triazolam

Ranitidine: increased triazolam blood level

Theophylline: decreased sedative effect of triazolam

Drug-food. Grapefruit juice: increased triazolam blood level and effects

Drug-herbs. Chamomile, hops, kava, skullcap, valerian: increased CNS depression

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Smoking: increased triazolam clearance

Patient monitoring

• Monitor neurologic status. Watch for paradoxical or rebound drug effects.

• Observe for signs of drug hoarding and drug abuse.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take at bedtime with a liquid other than grapefruit juice.

• Explain that drug is meant only for short-term use (7 to 10 days).

• Tell patient rebound insomnia may occur for 1 to 2 nights after he discontinues drug.

• Instruct patient to avoid alcohol use and smoking.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities while under drug's influence.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

Halcion

(hăl′sē-ən)
A trademark for the drug triazolam.

Halcion

a trademark for a hypnotic agent (triazolam).

Halcion®

Triazolam Pharmacology A hypnotic with serious side effects–eg, paranoia and severe anxiety
References in periodicals archive ?
The plaintiffs' complaint, the defendant's summary judgment motion and supporting memorandum, the plaintiffs' reply brief and supporting memorandum, and the court's order in a New York Halcion case.
in which secret settlements concealed that a drug caused twelve deaths and over 400 allergic reactions before it was removed from the market, the Dalkon Shield intrauterine device case, the Halcion Heart Valve case, the General Motors gas tank litigation (famously involving Ralph Nader), and the Dow Coming silicone breast implant case.
William Styron was attacked after he reported that the drug Halcion contributed to his suicidal tendencies.
Travellers can, however, use a short-acting sedative such as triazolam, more commonly known as Halcion or temazepam.
For example, Valium, Librium, Tranxene, Centrax, Paxipam, Dalmane and Klonopin might be active for as long as 200 hours; Ativan, Xanax, Restoril and Doral are active for up to 24 hours; and Halcion and Serax, 6 to 9 hours.
He regularly popped the tranquilizer Halcion in order to sleep.
These prescription drugs include Klonopin, Librium, Valium, and Halcion.
28] Berger's study of public relations efforts surrounding the drug Halcion featured the same sense of shifting perceptions and situated it in the tradition of modern social theorists like Althusser, Gramsci, Habermas, and Hall.
Recently it was accidentally discovered that grapefruit juice can enhance the absorption of a number of drugs, including the sedative Halcion (triazolam), the antihistamine Seldane (now off the market), and the immuno-suppressant cyclosporine, among others (Rodvold and Meyer 1996).
A classic example was when, in 1991, the tranquilliser Halcion was withdrawn with 24 hours' notice.
15, 1998, after DelTour poisoned him with a potentially legal mixture of the prescription drugs Halcion and Valium, prosecutors said.
Sato and Shinohara have been arrested and indicted for raping a female Nikko employee after inviting her to a karaoke room in Osaka's Kita Ward and spiking her drink with Halcion on March 26.