Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Haemophilus aphrophilus
) is an aerobic gram-negative coccobacillus that belongs to the HACEK (Haemophilus aphrophilus/paraphrophilus, Actino bacillus actinomycetem comitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella spp.) group.
corrodens is of the HACEK grouping of organisms, the other members being Haemophilus aphrophilus
, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, and Kingella kingae.
Other bacteria have been identified including their involvement in periodontal disease is unclear such as: Haemophilus aphrophilus
, Campylobacter species, Eubacterium and Actinomyces.
endocarditis after tongue piercing.
Although rare, infective endocarditis is caused by gram-negative organisms such as the HACEK (Haemophilus aphrophilus
, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) group, Bartonella spp., and Coxiella burnetii.
Tongue or oral piercing can cause Ludwig's angina (2,9,10) or may be complicated by normal oral flora, such as Haemophilus aphrophilus
, as in this case.