Some of the main potential biomarkers involved in zona pellucida penetration, sperm binding and fertilization of oocyte, are heat shock protein (HSPA2), serum amyloid P compound (SAP), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), fertilin [beta] (F[beta]), PH-20, DJ-1 and epididymis P34H protein (17-21).
Biomarker levels: The presence of HSPA2, DJ-1 and SAP on sperm surface was compared in NS and ANS groups.
But, the documents demonstrated that sperm concentration (p<0.001), progressive motility (p<0.001), normal morphology (p<0.001), DFI (p<0.001), CMI (p<0.001), viability (p<0.001), mitochondrial function (0.01), HSPA2 (p<0.001), DJ-1 (p<0.001) and SAP (p< 0.001) were meaningfully lower in ANS compared with NS.
In addition, the outcome exhibited the significant decrease of HSPA2, DJ-1 and SAP with regard to cut off value of 14%, 12% and 10%, respectively following the reduction in sperm quality.
However, additional targets in these cells are known to include the molecular chaperone, HSPA2, which facilitates ZP binding, as well as dynein heavy chain, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, alpha-catalytic subunit (PRKACA), and tubulin polymerisation-promoting protein family member 2 (TPPP2), each of which are each important for sperm functionally [175-177].
Aitken, "The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in regulating human sperm-egg recognition," Asian Journal of Andrology, vol.
In contrast, the protein content of the major vault protein (MVP) and the heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2) at g55 were lower than at the g90 time-point.
Interestingly, we observed that HSPA2 regulates ovary development by changing protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, and actin plays an important role by regulation of actin cytoskeleton and hippo signaling pathway (Table S2).
Another stress response protein that was identified in our study was the heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2), whose content was higher at g90 than at g55 time-point.
The 15 screened genes were chosen for (a) their demonstrated role in regulating cellular adhesion and their possible role in metastasis (TIMP3, CDH1, CDH13, and APC), or (b) their putative role in carcinogenesis (PPP1R13B, HSPA2
, HSD17B4, ESR1, GSTP1, CYP1B1, BRCA1, MYOD1, SOCS1, TITF1, and GSTM3).
Putative creatine kinase M-isoform in human sperm is identified as the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein HspA2
. Biol Reprod 63:925-932.
Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm creatine kinase, HspA2
chaperone protein (creatine kinase-M type), LDH, LDH-X, and lipid peroxidation product levels in infertile men with varicocele.