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HRQOL (total scores)###46.7+-5.6###55.3+-8.4###0.004###47.12+-4.8###46.9+-4.5###0.879
"HRQoL worsening was associated with several risk factors; surgical and pharmacological interventions were more common in the poorer HRQoL trajectory groups indicating that HRQoL does reflect the need for OA treatment," the authors write.
The EQ-5D-3L (14), introduced in 1990, is a standardized instrument used as a descriptive measure of HRQoL. It has 2 components: the EQ-5D descriptive system and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS).
Migraine is often accompanied by medical, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders that have a negative impact on a patient's HRQOL. We used the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire to measure HRQOL.
Using independent sample t-test, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in all dimensions of HRQOL questionnaire before the education program.
The mean of the total HRQoL score and its subscales according to the SES of the living area, sex, and the living area was reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Considering individual perceptions of HRQoL, it is essential to understand the main altered factors at the time of breast cancer diagnosis (8).
Generic HRQoL was assessed by using the Turkish form of the Short Form (SF)-36 questionnaire which is divided in eight scales as bodily pain, general health, mental health, physical functioning, role emotional, role physical, social functioning, and vitality (15).
Specific questionnaires are more suitable for patients affected by PD because they can detect relevant clinical changes better than other generic HRQoL instruments.
Data from students who failed to answer all the questions about HRQoL or bullying (261) or any co-variables (249) were not included in the analysis, which respectively represents 9.5% and 9.1% of the total evaluated students.
Depressive symptoms and the HRQoL are independently and negatively correlated to each other.11
The importance of the assessment of the HRQOL in children with ESRD cannot be overemphasised as technological advances have made it possible to extend their duration of survival.
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