viruses identified in the United States, including 2 H5N1, 12 H5N2, and 18 H5N8 viruses, to estimate the evolutionary history and to elucidate diversification patterns since emergence in North America.
The icA1 subgroup is composed of HPAI
(H5N8) viruses from Europe, South Korea, and Japan, whereas the icA2 subgroup is composed of HPAI
(H5N8) viruses from North America, Taiwan, and Japan and the icA3 subgroup is composed of HPAI
(H5N8) viruses isolated in South Korea and Japan.
Epidemiological and other analyses of HPAI
affected poultry flocks: June 15, 2015 report [cited 2015 Jul 7].
During December 15, 2014-March 31, 2015, a total of 60 outbreaks of HPAI
H5 outbreaks were investigated by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA; the National Wildlife Health Center, US Geological Survey, DOI; state agriculture departments; or state natural resources departments.
To examine virulence of ck/TN viruses in a mammalian species with closer physiologic similarity to humans, ferrets were inoculated with LPAI or HPAI
2009) reporting the same pattern and trend of HPAI
outbreaks in poultry farms.
Further study is required to evaluate the efficacy of zanamivir against HPAI
using avian models for optimizing the zanamivir application guideline for HPAI
The 14 HPAI
H5 detections, seven (H5N2), six (H5N8), and one (H5N1), occurred in five northwestern states (California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, and Washington).
USDA has notified the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) of the bird flu detection as part of the department's ongoing reporting of all HPAI
These carcasses were submitted directly by clients for postmortem examination and avian influenza diagnosis and were selected based on laboratory confirmation of HPAI
H5N1 virus infection at the NVRI laboratory.
Surveillance and isolation of HPAI
H5N1 from wild mandarin ducks (Aix galericulata).
At the end of the training, participants got familiarized with examples of HPAI
outbreak response efforts in commercial poultry from around the world.