In studies to clarify epigenetic mechanisms in TGCTs, promoter methylation was shown in genes such as tumor suppressors APC, ARF, TP53, RARB2, BRCA1, RASSF1A, cell cycle regulator CCNA1, DNA repair genes such as MGMT and hMLH1, transcription factor HOXA9
, and PRSS21, which encodes the protein testisin in testis cell maturation (30).
Zhou et al., "LncRNA HOTTIP modulates cancer stem cell properties in human pancreatic cancer by regulating HOXA9
," Cancer Letters, vol.
For example, HOXB3, HOXB4, and HOXA9
are abundantly expressed in HSCs, whereas HOXB8 and HOXA10 are expressed only in myeloid committed cells.
Index Gene selection Description 1834 M23197 CD33 antigen (differentiation antigen)  1882 M27891 CST3 cystatin C  3847 U82759 GB DEF = homeodomain protein HoxA9
mRNA  4847 X95735 Zyxin  6041 L09209 APLP2  Note.
and MEIS1 gene overexpression in the diagnosis of childhood acute leukemias: significant correlation with relapse and overall survival," Leukemia Research, vol.
Starting with 26 transcription factors identified as likely candidates, they eventually came down to just five (RUNX1, ERG, LCOR, HOXA5 and HOXA9
) that were both necessary and sufficient for creating blood stem cells.
eIF4E is associated with positive regulator HOXA9
in the nucleus.
Puri, "The spatiotemporal patterning of Hoxa9
and Hoxa13 in the developing zebrafish enteric nervous system," Pediatric Surgery International, vol.
Gene Fold change NCBI access HOXA9
2.24 NM_152739.3 HOXC5 2.69 NM_018953.2 HOXD4 2.78 NM_014621.2 HOXD1 2.36 NM_024501.1 HOXB13 14.62 NM_006361.5 HOXA5 2.05 NM_019102.1 HOXC10 6.19 NM_017409.3 HOXC6 4.42 NM_004503.3 HOXB7 2.22 NM_004502.3 HOXB9 20.59 NM_024017.3 HOXA7 2.54 NM_006896.3 HOXC11 2.09 NM_014212.3 HOXA10 4.08 NM_018951.2 HOXD13 16.47 NM_000523.3 HOXC8 2.89 NM_022658.3 Table 2: Correlation of HOXB9, HOXB13, and HOXD13 genes expression levels with clinicopathological variables in LSCC patients (n = 168).
TET1 regulated the ability of tumor invasion also through the high mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2)/TET1/homeobox A9 (HOXA9
) signaling pathway and was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.[sup], HMGA2 is a chromatin remodeling factor that is highly expressed in ESCs and can regulate the expression of transcriptional enhancers.[sup] Compared with normal somatic cells, HMGA2 is overexpressed in most malignant tumors and promotes tumor invasion and metastasis.[sup] In gene expression array analysis, knocking down HMGA2 increased TET1 expression in breast cancer.
DNA methylation profiling of ovarian carcinomas and their in vitro models identifies HOXA9
, HOXB5, SCGB3A1, and CRABP1 as novel targets.