For instance, Hoxa3
and Hoxb4 were found to be specifically expressed in the foregut, while Hoxc5 and Hoxa13 were found to be more expressed in the midgut and hindgut, respectively.
Retinoic acid-induced thymic abnormalities in the mouse are associated with altered pharyngeal morphology, thymocyte maturation defects, and altered pharyngeal morphology, thymocyte maturation defects and altered expression of Hoxa3
Moreover, Hox genes are closely related with the differentiation of stem cells such as Hoxa3 and Hoxd3 drive angiogenesis and endothelial cell sprouting in adults and promote embryonic stem cells differentiation towards endothelial cells .
When compared with ALI group, there were 8 differential expressed HOX genes including Hhex, Hoxa3, Hoxa5, Hoxa9, Hoxb5, Hox d8, Lhx2, and Meis1.
HOXA-AS2 gene is located between HOXA3
and HOXA4 genes on the antisense strand.
The initial study by Thompson et al (307) found that ALK+ ALCL overexpresses genes encoding signal transduction molecules such as SYK, LYN, and CDC37 and underexpresses transcription factors such as HOXC6 and HOXA3
; both ALK+ and ALK- ALCL highly express kinase genes (LCK, protein kinase C, VAV2, and NKIAMRE) and antiapoptotic molecules.
(3,4) In 1997, Vieille-Grosjean et al showed for the first time that at 4 weeks of development, human branchial arches express the paralogous groups using the mouse homologues of HOXB1, HOXA2, HOXB2, HOXA3
, HOXB3, HOXD3, HOXB4, and HOXC4 as probes for in situ hybridization.
Additionally, gland development related terms included CAV1, homeobox A3 (HOXA3
), E74-like factor 3 (ELF3), forkhead box A1 (FOXA1), homeobox A9 (HOXA9) genes as shown in Supplementary Table S2.