Of the 39 HOX genes, mutations in 10 HOX genes (HOXA1, HOXA2, HOXA11
, HOXA13, HOXB1, HOXB13, HOXC13, HOXD4, HOXD10, and HOXD13) have been found to cause human disorders with variations in their inheritance patterns, penetrance, expressivity, and mechanisms of pathogenesis .
MicroRNA-30d and microRNA-181a regulate HOXA11
expression in the uterosacral ligaments and are overexpressed in pelvic organ prolapse.
Sex steroids mediate HOXA11
expression in the human periimplantation endometrium.
(2003), Sadler and Wellik et al, showed that vertebral sacralisation can be induced in transgenic mice by Hoxa11
A new recurrent inversion, inv(7)(p15q34), leads to transcriptional activation of HOXA10 and HOXA11
in a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias.
Two weeks after birth, a period that corresponds to the peak of the differentiation process in mice, Hoxa9, Hoxa10, Hoxa11
, and Hoxa13 develop their characteristic spatial distribution throughout the Mullerian ducts: according to Taylor et al.
Hoxa gene patterning in PNDl controls resembled that in adult controls; that is, the highest levels of Hoxa9 were in the oviduct, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 in the uterus, and Hoxa 13 in the cervix/vagina (Figure 4A).
On the day of birth (PNDl), we found that Hoxa10 Hoxa11, and Hoxal3 had an expression pattern similar to that on El9, whereas Hoxa9 was more highly expressed in the oviduct compared with the uterus and cervix/ vagina.
HOTTIP promotes tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo through regulation of the expression of its neighboring HOXA genes (e.g., HOXA10, HOXA11
, and HOXA13).
During normal myogenesis, the homeobox gene HoxA11 initially inhibits myogenesis.
Abbreviations bHLH: Basic helix-loop-helix E-protein: E-box-binding protein EZH2: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 FOXO1: Forkhead box protein O1 HoxA11: Homeobox A11 miR: MicroRNA miRNA: MicroRNA MSC: Musculin myomiR: Myofiber microRNA PAX: Paired box RMS: Rhabdomyosarcoma siRNA: Short interfering RNA.