The abovementioned transformation is believed to be regulated by the Hoxa1
Neuronal defects in the hindbrain of Hoxa1
, Hoxb1 and Hoxb2 mutants reflect regulatory interactions among these Hox genes.
MicroRNA-10a is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and involved in its invasiveness partially via suppression of the HOXA1
Knockdown of HOTAIRM1 can partially counteract RA-induced expression of HOXA1
and HOXA4 during the RA-induced granulocyte differentiation of NB4 cells and selectively attenuated induction of CD11b and CD18 expression, two hallmarks for granulocyte differentiation.
Of the 39 HOX genes, mutations in 10 HOX genes (HOXA1
, HOXA2, HOXA11, HOXA13, HOXB1, HOXB13, HOXC13, HOXD4, HOXD10, and HOXD13) have been found to cause human disorders with variations in their inheritance patterns, penetrance, expressivity, and mechanisms of pathogenesis .
Citation: Bony De Kumar et al., "Dynamic regulation of Nanog and stem cell-signaling pathways by Hoxa1
during early neuro-ectodermal differentiation of ES cells," Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences, 2017; 201610612 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610612114
The team narrowed their list down to six genes that turn other genes on or off, and then narrowed it further to a single gene called HoxA1
that had the strongest statistical link to cancer.
Many studies have investigated that several miR-210 targets were more specifically in the context of cancer, including cell-cycle regulator E2F3, homeobox proteins (HOXA1
, HOXA9) , and the iron sulfur cluster sssembly proteins ISCU1/2 , which are involved in many cellular processes such as heme biosynthesis and iron metabolism.
And further vitro experiments demonstrated that miR-10a may be involved in the invasive potential of PDAC cells partially via suppression of HOXA1
In that study, ethanol induced a significant increase in the expression of two miRNAs (i.e., miR-10a and miR-10b), resulting in down-regulated expression of a protein called Hoxa1
in fetal brains.
From 25 DNA methylation markers that had been examined for their methylation status in nonneoplastic gastric mucosa and in gastric cancer in a previous study,13 we selected 7 markers showing H pylori--associated hypermethylation (CALCA, CDH1, CRABP1, CYP1B1, DAPK1, GR1N2B, TW1ST1) and 5 additional markers displaying cancer-associated hypermethylation (HOXA1
, NEUROG1, NR3C1, SMAD9, TUMPS).
We added 11 markers [GATA3, GATA binding protein 3; GDNF, glial cell derived neurotrophic factor; OPCML, opioid binding protein/cell adhesion molecule-like; PENK, proenkephalin; TFAP2A, transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha); APP, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (peptidase nexin-II, Alzheimer disease); CACNA1G, calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit; HOXA1
, homeobox A1; NEUROG1, neurogenin 1; APBA2, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2; and TRRAP, transformation/transcription domain-associated protein on the basis of a study that indicated increased methylated DNA in CRC tissue (19).