Br[sub]2 and hypobromous acid (HOBr
), its hydrolysis product, are strong oxidants which will react with antioxidants present in the lung epithelial lining fluid initially after inhalation.
Chen, D., and Coauthors, 2016: Airborne measurements of BrO and the sum of HOBr
and Br2 over the tropical west Pacific from 1 to 15 km during the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment.
Nowadays, it is well accepted that MPO generates, even under physiological conditions, also hypobromous acid (HOBr
) and hypothiocyanite (HOSCN), even if the corresponding bromide (20-100 [micro]M) and thiocyanate (20-120 [micro]M) concentrations are much lower than the chloride (100-140 [micro]M) plasma concentrations .
Therefore, the possible oxidizing species in acid solution of CAB are PhS[O.sub.2] NHCl, PhS[O.sub.2]N[Cl.sub.2], HOCl, and possibly [H.sub.2]O[Cl.sup.+] and, in alkaline CAB solutions, they are PhS[O.sub.2]NHCl, PhS[O.sub.2] N[Cl.sup.-], HOBr
, and O[Br.sup.-].
The positive bromine from NBS can be transferred to the dextrose through the intermediate formation of hypobromous acid (HOBr
The radical hydroxyl mechanism starts when ozone and/or hydroxyl radical oxidizes [Br.sup.-] into hypobromous acid (HOBr
) and/or hypobromite radical (BrO") or even the bromide radical (Br*).
It is more acidic than hypohalides that have pKas of 7.5 (HOCl), 8.6 (HOBr
), and 10.6 (HOI) [14, 66].
Los bromuros son oxidados por el acido hipocloroso (HOCl) para formar acido hipobromoso (HOBr
), el cual reacciona de inmediato en combinacion con el acido hipocloroso para formar subproductos bromados.
Increased concentrations of stable halogenated Tyr residues have been detected in proteins isolated from atherosclerotic plaques as well as in plasma and airway secretions of patients with asthma, ARDS, and cystic fibrosis, and halogenated Tyr residues are widely used as markers for damage mediated by hypohalous acids (HOCl and HOBr
) in these diseases (3, 5, 107, 118-122).
When bromine is added to water, it forms the sanitizer and oxidizer hypobromous acid (HOBr
Bromine (DBDMH) + water (H2O) [right arrow] hypobromous acid (HOBr
) + dimethylhydantoin (DMH)