(27) Concomitant amplification of MDM2, CDK4, and HMGA2
, as well as overexpression of the encoded proteins, is characteristic of well-differentiated liposarcomas.
These include CD117, GFAP, PLAG1, and HMGA2
. S100 is positive in most benign and malignant lesions within the monomorphic basaloid lesions group; therefore, its usefulness when attempting to distinguish among the monomorphic basaloid neoplasms is limited.
Although expression of single genes, such as HMGA2
and UbcH10, has been evaluated to determine the potential to separate benign from malignant tumors in thyroid FNA aspirates, the application of GEA has been limited by low sensitivity and specificity.
In a previous study, (10) we found that HMGA2
can be a potential surrogate marker to differentiate ovarian serous and EMCs.
(18) These translocations involve the high mobility group A (HMGA2
In addition, HMGA2
has been shown to be the target gene in pleomorphic adenoma with translocations involving 12q14-15 and is frequently coamplified with MDM2.
(37) Cytogenetic studies of conventional lipoma are abundant and have revealed rearrangements of 12q14-15 and the underlying HMGA2
gene as most common (Figure 2, A and B).38 In contrast, atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma is characterized by the presence of a supernumerary ring or marker chromosomes (often as the sole anomaly) containing amplification of the 12q14-15 region and corresponding tumor-associated genes (in particular MDM2 and CDK4) (Figure 2, C through E).
(13) let-7 is known to regulate oncogenes RAS and HMGA2
. It has also been shown that miRNA 127, a known tumor suppressor, is downregulated in AML associated with inv(16).
Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix and corpus: HPV-negative neoplasms that are commonly PAX8, CA125, and HMGA2
positive and that may be immunoreactive with TTF1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-p.
There are other genes Linked to body size that possibly could be associated with canine heart development: high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2
), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), Obscurin Like 1 (OBSL1), Stanniocalcin-2 (STC2), Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling 2 (SOCS2) and Mothers Against Decantaplegic homolog (SMAD2) (TGFb) (37), but this still is not clear.
miR33-5p, a novel mechano-sensitive microRNA promotes osteoblast differentiation by targeting Hmga2
. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 23170, doi: 10.1038/srep23170.
Disrupting the pairing between let-7 and Hmga2
enhances oncogenic transformation.