HIV-associated nephropathy


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nephropathy

 [nĕ-frop´ah-the]
1. any disease of the kidneys. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
2. any disease of the kidneys; see also nephritis. Called also nephrosis. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
AIDS nephropathy former name for HIV-associated nephropathy.
analgesic nephropathy interstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis, seen in patients with a history of abuse of analgesics such as aspirin or acetaminophen alone or in combination.
diabetic nephropathy the nephropathy that commonly accompanies later stages of diabetes mellitus; it begins with hyperfiltration, renal hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and hypertension; in time proteinuria develops, with other signs of decreasing function leading to end-stage renal disease.
gouty nephropathy any of a group of chronic kidney diseases associated with the abnormal production and excretion of uric acid.
heavy metal nephropathy the kidney damage resulting from any of various forms of heavy metal poisoning, usually in the form of tubulointerstitial nephritis. The most common metals involved are cadmium, lead, and mercury.
HIV-associated nephropathy renal pathology in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, similar to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with proteinuria, enlarged kidneys, and dilated tubules containing proteinaceous casts; it may progress to end-stage renal disease within weeks.
hypokalemic nephropathy nephropathy with hypokalemia, interstitial nephritis, swelling and vacuolization of proximal renal tubules, and progressive renal failure, resulting from conditions such as oncotic overloading of the kidney filtration mechanisms by sugars. See also potassium-losing nephropathy.
IgA nephropathy a chronic form marked by hematuria and proteinuria and by deposits of IgA immunoglobulin in the mesangial areas of the renal glomeruli, with subsequent reactive hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Called also Berger's disease and IgA glomerulonephritis.
ischemic nephropathy nephropathy resulting from partial or complete obstruction of a renal artery with ischemia, accompanied by a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration rate.
lead nephropathy the kidney damage that accompanies lead poisoning; lead deposits appear in the epithelium of the proximal tubules and as nuclear inclusions in cells. In time this leads to tubulointerstitial nephritis with chronic renal failure and other symptoms.
membranous nephropathy membranous glomerulonephritis.
minimal change nephropathy minimal change disease.
obstructive nephropathy nephropathy caused by obstruction of the urinary tract (usually the ureter), with hydronephrosis, slowing of the glomerular filtration rate, and tubular abnormalities.
potassium-losing nephropathy hypokalemic nephropathy after persistent potassium loss; it may be seen in metabolic alkalosis, adrenocortical hormone excess, or in intrinsic renal disease such as renal tubular acidosis or hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular cells. Called also potassium-losing nephritis.
reflux nephropathy childhood pyelonephritis in which the renal scarring results from vesicoureteric reflux, with radiological appearance of intrarenal reflux.
salt-losing nephropathy intrinsic renal disease causing abnormal urinary sodium loss in persons ingesting normal amounts of sodium chloride, with vomiting, dehydration, and vascular collapse. Called also salt-losing nephritis.
urate nephropathy (uric acid nephropathy) any of a group of kidney diseases occurring in patients with hyperuricemia, including an acute form, a chronic form (gouty nephropathy), and nephrolithiasis with formation of uric acid calculi.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

HIV–associated nephropathy

Abbreviation: HIVAN
Renal failure with nephrotic-range (massive) protein loss in the urine caused by infection of the kidneys with HIV. Biopsy of kidneys of affected patients reveals focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
See also: nephropathy
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
The treatment of HIV-associated nephropathy. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2010; 17: 59-71, doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.
Pathology of HIV-associated nephropathy: a detailed mor-phologic and comparative study.
Use of HAART precipated a decline in HIV-associated nephropathy at participating sites, making recruitment difficult.
One should always suspect HIV-associated nephropathy with bilateral increased cortical echgenicity (20) (Figure 16).
Early treatment of asymptomatic individuals is favorable when there is a rapid decline in CD4 cell count (such as more than 100/mcL per year); plasma HIV-1 RNA level is greater than 100,000 copies/mL; and in the presence of active hepatitis B or C, HIV-associated nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease risk factors.
SAN DIEGO -- Median survival time of patients with end-stage renal disease stemming from HIV-associated nephropathy has more than doubled nationwide since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced in January of 1996, Dr.
The most frequent histological findings for patients biopsied for NS were FSGS (19.8%), MGN (19.2%), LN (12.3%), MCD (11.0%), MPGN (10.6%) and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) (4.4%).
Urinary NGAL marks cystic disease in HIV-associated nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20(8):1687-1692.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and HIV-associated nephropathy. Semin Nephrol 1998;18(4):373-7.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an important cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in this population.
Spectrum of glomerular disease in HIV Glomerular pattern Subtypes HIV-FGS or 'classic' HIVAN Some have described a mixed (HIV-associated nephropathy) variant of HIV-FGS in combination with a proliferative glomerulonephritis HIV-ICD (this group of patients Mesangial proliferative may have co-infection with hepatitis B or C) Membranoproliferative (type I and III) Lupus-like Exudative-proliferative Crescentic IgA Membranous Various glomerulonephropathies Minimal change (this is a heterogeneous group with different aetiologies) Immunotactoid Amyloidosis HIV-TTP/HUS TTP/HUS Comorbid disease Diabetic nephropathy Hypertensive nephrosclerosis Auto-immune disease (e.g.